Abstract

The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum of a fiber optical parametric amplifier in a gain-saturation condition is studied. We experimentally observed holes around the signal and the idler in the ASE spectrum of a deeply gain-saturated amplifier. This observation is explained by a theoretical model that includes parametric interactions among ASE components and the pump, signal, and idler beams.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, Opt. Lett. 20, 34 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1999 Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1999), paper MG3.
  3. M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1801 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. E. Marhic, N. Kagi, T.-K. Chaing, and L. G. Kazovsky, Opt. Lett. 21, 573 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD3.
  6. G. Cappellini and S. Trillo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 824 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Inoue and T. Mukai, Opt. Lett. 26, 10 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1553 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Vatarescu, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1652 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Bar-Joseph, A. A. Friesem, R. G. Waarts, and H. H. Yaffe, Opt. Lett. 11, 534 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 535 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1135 (1997).

2001 (1)

1997 (2)

A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1135 (1997).

1996 (1)

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1992 (1)

K. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

A. Vatarescu, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1652 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD3.

Bar-Joseph, I.

Benedetto, S.

A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1135 (1997).

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1135 (1997).

Cappellini, G.

Carena, A.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1135 (1997).

A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chaing, T.-K.

Curri, V.

A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1135 (1997).

Eisenstein, G.

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

Gaudino, R.

A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1135 (1997).

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD3.

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue and T. Mukai, Opt. Lett. 26, 10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kagi, N.

Kazovsky, L. G.

Kikuchi, K.

Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, Opt. Lett. 20, 34 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1999 Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1999), paper MG3.

Marhic, M. E.

Mukai, T.

Poggiolini, P.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1135 (1997).

A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shtaif, M.

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takushima, Y.

Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, Opt. Lett. 20, 34 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1999 Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1999), paper MG3.

Trillo, S.

Vatarescu, A.

A. Vatarescu, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1652 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

Yaffe, H. H.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1135 (1997).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Vatarescu, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1652 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1999 Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1999), paper MG3.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: mod, modulator; pc, polarization controller; att, attenuator; EDFAs, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers; Fs, optical filters; LDs, laser diodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fiber OPA output spectra. Resolution bandwidth, 0.1  nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of the light waves considered in the theoretical model: Ep, pump; Es, signal; Ei, idler; Es1, Es2, Ei1, Ei2, ASE beams; Ep1, Ep2, newly generated beams about the pump.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated results. Relative AES power is plotted as a function of wavelength separation from the signal wavelength (sig.in). The experimental result for an input power of -5 dBm is also shown.

Equations (4)

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dEpdz=-α2Ep+iγEp2+2Es2+2Ei2Ep+2Ep*EsEiexpiΔk0z,
dEsdz=-α2Es+iγ2Ep2+Es2+2Ei2Es+Ep2Ei*exp-iΔk0z,
dEidz=-α2Ei+iγ2Ep2+2Es2+Ei2Ei+Ep2Es*exp-iΔk0z,
dEs1dz=-α2Es1+iγ2Ep2+Es2+Ei2Es1+2EsEpEp2*exp-iΔk3z+2EsEi1Ei*exp-iΔk4z+2EsEiEi2*exp-iΔk5z+Ep2Ei2*exp-iΔk1z+Es2Es2*exp-iΔksz+2EsEp1Ep*exp-iΔk2z+2EpEp1Ei*exp-iΔk6,

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