Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a chaotic on–off keying method for secure communications by using chaos synchronization in two microchip lasers. The output of the microchip laser in the transmitter is externally modulated with an acousto-optic modulator at 4 MHz. One encodes a digital message in the chaotic carrier by turning the modulation on and off at 100  kHz. Because the accuracy of synchronization for the slave laser in the receiver tends to be degraded in the presence of external modulation in the injection laser signal, one can distinguish two binary states. The digital message can be recovered as an envelope of the chaotic oscillation when the difference between the two laser outputs of the transmitter and the receiver is calculated.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, Science 279, 1198 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Sivaprakasam and K. A. Shore, Opt. Lett. 24, 1200 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Fischer, Y. Liu, and P. Davis, Phys. Rev. A 62, 011801 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2000

I. Fischer, Y. Liu, and P. Davis, Phys. Rev. A 62, 011801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, and H. F. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 269 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, T. Ogawa, M. Shinozuka, and F. Kannari, Phys. Rev. E 62, 1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, Science 279, 1198 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, and H. Porte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and A. Scire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 953 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

U. Parlitz, L. O. Chua, L. Kocarev, K. S. Halle, and A. Shang, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci. Eng. 2, 973 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Annovazzi-Lodi, V.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and A. Scire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 953 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, and H. F. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 269 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chua, L. O.

U. Parlitz, L. O. Chua, L. Kocarev, K. S. Halle, and A. Shang, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci. Eng. 2, 973 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Colet, P.

Davis, P.

I. Fischer, Y. Liu, and P. Davis, Phys. Rev. A 62, 011801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Donati, S.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and A. Scire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 953 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, I.

I. Fischer, Y. Liu, and P. Davis, Phys. Rev. A 62, 011801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J.-P.

J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, and H. Porte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Halle, K. S.

U. Parlitz, L. O. Chua, L. Kocarev, K. S. Halle, and A. Shang, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci. Eng. 2, 973 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jako, Z.

M. P. Kennedy, G. Kolumban, G. Kis, and Z. Jako, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 4, p. 461.
[CrossRef]

Kannari, F.

A. Uchida, T. Ogawa, M. Shinozuka, and F. Kannari, Phys. Rev. E 62, 1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, M. P.

M. P. Kennedy, G. Kolumban, G. Kis, and Z. Jako, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 4, p. 461.
[CrossRef]

Kis, G.

M. P. Kennedy, G. Kolumban, G. Kis, and Z. Jako, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 4, p. 461.
[CrossRef]

Kocarev, L.

U. Parlitz, L. O. Chua, L. Kocarev, K. S. Halle, and A. Shang, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci. Eng. 2, 973 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kolumban, G.

M. P. Kennedy, G. Kolumban, G. Kis, and Z. Jako, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 4, p. 461.
[CrossRef]

Larger, L.

J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, and H. Porte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. F.

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, and H. F. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 269 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

I. Fischer, Y. Liu, and P. Davis, Phys. Rev. A 62, 011801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, L. G.

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, and H. F. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 269 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

A. Uchida, T. Ogawa, M. Shinozuka, and F. Kannari, Phys. Rev. E 62, 1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parlitz, U.

U. Parlitz, L. O. Chua, L. Kocarev, K. S. Halle, and A. Shang, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci. Eng. 2, 973 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Porte, H.

J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, and H. Porte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

Scire, A.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and A. Scire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 953 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shang, A.

U. Parlitz, L. O. Chua, L. Kocarev, K. S. Halle, and A. Shang, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci. Eng. 2, 973 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shinozuka, M.

A. Uchida, T. Ogawa, M. Shinozuka, and F. Kannari, Phys. Rev. E 62, 1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

Sivaprakasam, S.

Uchida, A.

A. Uchida, T. Ogawa, M. Shinozuka, and F. Kannari, Phys. Rev. E 62, 1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

VanWiggeren, G. D.

G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, Science 279, 1198 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and A. Scire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 953 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, and H. F. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 269 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci. Eng.

U. Parlitz, L. O. Chua, L. Kocarev, K. S. Halle, and A. Shang, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci. Eng. 2, 973 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

I. Fischer, Y. Liu, and P. Davis, Phys. Rev. A 62, 011801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

A. Uchida, T. Ogawa, M. Shinozuka, and F. Kannari, Phys. Rev. E 62, 1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, and H. Porte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, Science 279, 1198 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. P. Kennedy, G. Kolumban, G. Kis, and Z. Jako, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 4, p. 461.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for signal transmission based on the chaotic on–off keying method: BSs, beam splitters; Ls, lenses; Ms, mirrors; VA, variable attenuator (neutral-density filter); LDs, laser diodes; MCLs, Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers; PLs, Peltier devices; IS, optical isolator; PDs, photodiodes; PM, pump modulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correlation plots between waveforms of the two laser outputs (a) without and (b) with external modulation at a frequency of 4.0  MHz by an AOM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

rf spectra of the transmitter and receiver outputs (a) without and (b) with external modulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Temporal waveform of the transmitter output with a digital message, (b) temporal waveform of the synchronized receiver output, (c) encoded digital message, (d) absolute values of the difference between two normalized laser outputs of (a) and (b), (e) decoded temporal waveform with a low-pass filter from the signal in (d). Note the different scales of the vertical axes in (a), (b), and (d).

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