Abstract

We present a theory of the magnetic field enhancement of terahertz (THz) emission from photogenerated carriers in the surface depletion region of a semiconductor. A combination of the Drude–Lorentz model for the carrier dynamics with an appropriate solution of the radiation problem is sufficient to explain the strong B-field enhancement in THz radiation that has been observed experimentally. The effect arises primarily from the increased radiation efficiency of transient currents flowing in the plane of the surface. The model provides quantitative agreement with experiment for the pronounced angular dependence of the enhancement and predicts the correct trend for the enhancement in a variety of materials.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, T. D. Hewitt, T. Sangsiri, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2003 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2477 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Ohtake, S. Ono, M. Sakai, Z. Liu, T. Tsukamoto, and N. Sarukura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1398 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Weiss, R. Wallenstein, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4160 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5783 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3377 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Phys. Rev. B 53, R13295 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Ono, T. Tsukamoto, H. Ohtake, E. Kawahata, T. Yano, and N. Sarakura, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 555–556.
  12. D. Grischkowsky, in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walther, N. Korteev, and M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 196–227.
  13. D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 81st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 2000).

2000

H. Ohtake, S. Ono, M. Sakai, Z. Liu, T. Tsukamoto, and N. Sarukura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Weiss, R. Wallenstein, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Phys. Rev. B 53, R13295 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3377 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, T. D. Hewitt, T. Sangsiri, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2003 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

C. Weiss, R. Wallenstein, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ciesla, C. M.

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Corchia, A.

R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Grischkowsky, in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walther, N. Korteev, and M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 196–227.

Hewitt, T. D.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, T. D. Hewitt, T. Sangsiri, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2003 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Izumida, S.

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, T. D. Hewitt, T. Sangsiri, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2003 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, M. B.

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, G. A. C.

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawahata, E.

S. Ono, T. Tsukamoto, H. Ohtake, E. Kawahata, T. Yano, and N. Sarakura, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 555–556.

Kingsley, L. E.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, T. D. Hewitt, T. Sangsiri, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2003 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

H. Ohtake, S. Ono, M. Sakai, Z. Liu, T. Tsukamoto, and N. Sarukura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R.

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A. V.

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Phys. Rev. B 53, R13295 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3377 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, H.

H. Ohtake, S. Ono, M. Sakai, Z. Liu, T. Tsukamoto, and N. Sarukura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Ono, T. Tsukamoto, H. Ohtake, E. Kawahata, T. Yano, and N. Sarakura, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 555–556.

Ono, S.

H. Ohtake, S. Ono, M. Sakai, Z. Liu, T. Tsukamoto, and N. Sarukura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Ono, T. Tsukamoto, H. Ohtake, E. Kawahata, T. Yano, and N. Sarakura, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 555–556.

Pepper, M.

R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, M.

H. Ohtake, S. Ono, M. Sakai, Z. Liu, T. Tsukamoto, and N. Sarukura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sangsiri, T.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, T. D. Hewitt, T. Sangsiri, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2003 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sarakura, N.

S. Ono, T. Tsukamoto, H. Ohtake, E. Kawahata, T. Yano, and N. Sarakura, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 555–556.

Sarukura, N.

H. Ohtake, S. Ono, M. Sakai, Z. Liu, T. Tsukamoto, and N. Sarukura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Some, D.

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Phys. Rev. B 53, R13295 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3377 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, T.

H. Ohtake, S. Ono, M. Sakai, Z. Liu, T. Tsukamoto, and N. Sarukura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Ono, T. Tsukamoto, H. Ohtake, E. Kawahata, T. Yano, and N. Sarakura, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 555–556.

Wallenstein, R.

C. Weiss, R. Wallenstein, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, M.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, T. D. Hewitt, T. Sangsiri, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2003 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, C.

C. Weiss, R. Wallenstein, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yano, T.

S. Ono, T. Tsukamoto, H. Ohtake, E. Kawahata, T. Yano, and N. Sarakura, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 555–556.

Zhang, X.-C.

R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, T. D. Hewitt, T. Sangsiri, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2003 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, T. D. Hewitt, T. Sangsiri, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2003 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, L. E. Kingsley, and M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohtake, S. Ono, M. Sakai, Z. Liu, T. Tsukamoto, and N. Sarukura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Weiss, R. Wallenstein, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3377 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. McLaughlin, A. Corchia, M. B. Johnston, Q. Chen, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

R. McLaughlin, Q. Chen, A. Corchia, C. M. Ciesla, D. D. Arnone, X.-C. Zhang, G. A. C. Jones, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Phys. Rev. B 53, R13295 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Some and A. V. Nurmikko, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Ono, T. Tsukamoto, H. Ohtake, E. Kawahata, T. Yano, and N. Sarakura, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 555–556.

D. Grischkowsky, in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walther, N. Korteev, and M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 196–227.

D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 81st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 2000).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Magnetic field dependence of the THz enhancement predicted for an InAs emitter excited by a pump laser at 45° (solid curve) with and (dotted curve) without the inclusion of the THz dielectric response.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental data for the angular dependence of the THz enhancement of an InAs sample under a magnetic field of 1  T (filled circles). The solid curve corresponds to a fit to the model presented in the text.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of B-Field Enhanced THz Emission in Five Lightly Doped Semiconductors

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Est=-2Vc2r1cosθ+ϵ-sin2θ1/2jt·y^,Ept=-2Vc2rsinθϵcosθ+ϵ-sin2θ1/2×jt·z^-γjt·x^.
jt=-teNtμt-tEdt.
jt/t=eN0θtat.
at=eE/m*e-t/τ-sinωctx^+cosωctz^,
Eptθte-t/τcosωct+γsinωctsinθ.
ηPγ,x=μ0B=γ22+32+12-γ22+γx/1+x2-2+γx/1+x2/4,

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