We describe the reflection of a strongly focused beam from an interface between two
dielectric media. If the beam is incident from the optically denser medium, the image
generated by the reflected light is strongly aberrated. This situation is encountered
in high-resolution confocal microscopy and data sampling based on solid immersion
lenses and oil immersion objectives. The origin of the observed aberrations lies in
the nature of total internal reflection, for which there is a phase shift between
incident and reflected waves. This phase shift displaces the apparent reflection
point beyond the interface, similarly to the Goos–Hänchen shift.
© 2001 Optical Society of America
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