Abstract

The attenuation properties of Co2+-doped single-mode optical fibers were experimentally and analytically investigated for preparation of a stable flatband attenuator. By controlling the Co2+-doped region in a fiber core, we could prepare a flatband attenuator in which the attenuation in wavelengths 1530–1610  nm was held to within 9.9–10.2  dB (3% variation) and the fluctuation of attenuation was less than 0.1  dB with 1-W input power for 100  h.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, and S. Mitachi, in 10th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1995), p. 10.
  2. Generic Requirements for Fiber Optic Attenuators, Generic Requirements GR-910-CORE, Issue 2, December1998 (Telecordia Technologies, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), http://www.telcordia.com .
  3. Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, and S. Mitachi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1245 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Saijo, Y. Morishita, Y. Ariga, K. Sugi, and K. Muta, in Technical Digest of 46th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Eatontown, N.J., 1997), p. 74.
  5. A. Croteau, F. Chenard, E. Gagnon, N. Grefoire, and M. Paquet, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM10.
  6. P. Bousselet, M. Bettiati, L. Gasca, M. Goix, F. Boubal, C. Sinet, F. Leplingard, and D. Bayart, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WG5.
  7. P. O. Schultz, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 309 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).
  9. T. Gozen, Y. Kikukawa, M. Yoshida, H. Tanaka, and T. Shintani, Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WQ1.
  10. S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney, and K. L. Walker, in Optical Fiber CommunicationsT. Li, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Vol. 1, Chap.  4.
  11. D. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 3 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Spectral-Attenuation Cutback Measurement for Single-Mode Optical Fibers (American National Standards Institute, Washington, D.C., 1990).
  13. M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Petermann and R. Kuhne, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 2 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, and S. Mitachi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. Petermann and R. Kuhne, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 2 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. O. Schultz, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

D. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 3 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ariga, Y.

M. Saijo, Y. Morishita, Y. Ariga, K. Sugi, and K. Muta, in Technical Digest of 46th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Eatontown, N.J., 1997), p. 74.

K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).

Bayart, D.

P. Bousselet, M. Bettiati, L. Gasca, M. Goix, F. Boubal, C. Sinet, F. Leplingard, and D. Bayart, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WG5.

Bettiati, M.

P. Bousselet, M. Bettiati, L. Gasca, M. Goix, F. Boubal, C. Sinet, F. Leplingard, and D. Bayart, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WG5.

Boubal, F.

P. Bousselet, M. Bettiati, L. Gasca, M. Goix, F. Boubal, C. Sinet, F. Leplingard, and D. Bayart, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WG5.

Bousselet, P.

P. Bousselet, M. Bettiati, L. Gasca, M. Goix, F. Boubal, C. Sinet, F. Leplingard, and D. Bayart, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WG5.

Chenard, F.

A. Croteau, F. Chenard, E. Gagnon, N. Grefoire, and M. Paquet, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM10.

Croteau, A.

A. Croteau, F. Chenard, E. Gagnon, N. Grefoire, and M. Paquet, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM10.

Gagnon, E.

A. Croteau, F. Chenard, E. Gagnon, N. Grefoire, and M. Paquet, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM10.

Gasca, L.

P. Bousselet, M. Bettiati, L. Gasca, M. Goix, F. Boubal, C. Sinet, F. Leplingard, and D. Bayart, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WG5.

Goix, M.

P. Bousselet, M. Bettiati, L. Gasca, M. Goix, F. Boubal, C. Sinet, F. Leplingard, and D. Bayart, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WG5.

Gozen, T.

T. Gozen, Y. Kikukawa, M. Yoshida, H. Tanaka, and T. Shintani, Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WQ1.

Grefoire, N.

A. Croteau, F. Chenard, E. Gagnon, N. Grefoire, and M. Paquet, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM10.

Kanayama, K.

K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).

Kato, D.

D. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 3 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).

Kikukawa, Y.

T. Gozen, Y. Kikukawa, M. Yoshida, H. Tanaka, and T. Shintani, Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WQ1.

Kuhne, R.

K. Petermann and R. Kuhne, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 2 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, A.

K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).

Leplingard, F.

P. Bousselet, M. Bettiati, L. Gasca, M. Goix, F. Boubal, C. Sinet, F. Leplingard, and D. Bayart, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WG5.

MacChesney, J. B.

S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney, and K. L. Walker, in Optical Fiber CommunicationsT. Li, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Vol. 1, Chap.  4.

Mitachi, S.

Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, and S. Mitachi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, and S. Mitachi, in 10th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1995), p. 10.

Morishita, Y.

K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).

M. Saijo, Y. Morishita, Y. Ariga, K. Sugi, and K. Muta, in Technical Digest of 46th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Eatontown, N.J., 1997), p. 74.

Muta, K.

M. Saijo, Y. Morishita, Y. Ariga, K. Sugi, and K. Muta, in Technical Digest of 46th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Eatontown, N.J., 1997), p. 74.

K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).

Nagase, R.

Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, and S. Mitachi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, and S. Mitachi, in 10th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1995), p. 10.

K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).

Nagel, S. R.

S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney, and K. L. Walker, in Optical Fiber CommunicationsT. Li, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Vol. 1, Chap.  4.

Ohashi, M.

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paquet, M.

A. Croteau, F. Chenard, E. Gagnon, N. Grefoire, and M. Paquet, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM10.

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann and R. Kuhne, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 2 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Saijo, M.

M. Saijo, Y. Morishita, Y. Ariga, K. Sugi, and K. Muta, in Technical Digest of 46th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Eatontown, N.J., 1997), p. 74.

Schultz, P. O.

P. O. Schultz, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shintani, T.

T. Gozen, Y. Kikukawa, M. Yoshida, H. Tanaka, and T. Shintani, Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WQ1.

Shiraki, K.

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sinet, C.

P. Bousselet, M. Bettiati, L. Gasca, M. Goix, F. Boubal, C. Sinet, F. Leplingard, and D. Bayart, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WG5.

Sugi, K.

K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).

M. Saijo, Y. Morishita, Y. Ariga, K. Sugi, and K. Muta, in Technical Digest of 46th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Eatontown, N.J., 1997), p. 74.

Tabata, T.

K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).

Takeuchi, Y.

Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, and S. Mitachi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, and S. Mitachi, in 10th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1995), p. 10.

K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).

Tamura, K.

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

T. Gozen, Y. Kikukawa, M. Yoshida, H. Tanaka, and T. Shintani, Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WQ1.

Walker, K. L.

S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney, and K. L. Walker, in Optical Fiber CommunicationsT. Li, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Vol. 1, Chap.  4.

Yoshida, M.

T. Gozen, Y. Kikukawa, M. Yoshida, H. Tanaka, and T. Shintani, Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WQ1.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 3 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, and S. Mitachi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

P. O. Schultz, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Petermann and R. Kuhne, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 2 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

Spectral-Attenuation Cutback Measurement for Single-Mode Optical Fibers (American National Standards Institute, Washington, D.C., 1990).

Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, and S. Mitachi, in 10th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1995), p. 10.

Generic Requirements for Fiber Optic Attenuators, Generic Requirements GR-910-CORE, Issue 2, December1998 (Telecordia Technologies, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), http://www.telcordia.com .

K. Kato, Y. Takeuchi, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, Y. Morishita, A. Kumagai, Y. Ariga, K. Muta, K. Sugi, and T. Tabata, “Light Attenuator and its production,” Japanese patent application 06-303156 (1994).

T. Gozen, Y. Kikukawa, M. Yoshida, H. Tanaka, and T. Shintani, Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WQ1.

S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney, and K. L. Walker, in Optical Fiber CommunicationsT. Li, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Vol. 1, Chap.  4.

M. Saijo, Y. Morishita, Y. Ariga, K. Sugi, and K. Muta, in Technical Digest of 46th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Eatontown, N.J., 1997), p. 74.

A. Croteau, F. Chenard, E. Gagnon, N. Grefoire, and M. Paquet, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM10.

P. Bousselet, M. Bettiati, L. Gasca, M. Goix, F. Boubal, C. Sinet, F. Leplingard, and D. Bayart, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WG5.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Attenuation spectra of a multimode (MM) CoDF and two single-mode CoDFs. The attenuation is normalized to 10  dB at 1550  nm. In CoDF-1/1 the Co2+ ions are doped in the core region, and in CoDF-1/3 the ions are doped in the 1/3 central region in the core.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental (circles) and theoretical (curve) spectral variations of the attenuation for the single-mode CoDFs (filled circles) and the multimode CoDF (open circle) at wavelengths 1530–1610  nm as a function of the doped-region radius. The spectral variation is defined as αmax-αmin/α1550, where αmax and αmin are the maximal and minimal attenuation in the wavelength region 1530–1610  nm and α1550 is the attenuation at 1550  nm. The inset illustrates a single-mode CoDF with double-structure core.

Equations (2)

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αλ=0Ar,λPr,λrdr0Pr,λrdr,
αλ=Aλ0aPr,λrdr0Pr,λrdr.

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