Abstract

We present three-dimensional tomographic images of the absorption coefficient that is due to the presence of a fluorophore reconstructed from frequency domain fluence measurements of a tissue phantom containing a single, fluorescence contrast-enhanced inclusion. We show that such a reconstruction may be improved when the importance of measurement error correlations between relative phase shift and amplitude is assessed and when measurements are preprocessed to reduce the magnitude and the bias of system error.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. J. Hawrysz and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Neoplasia 2, 388 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Deghani, and D. T. Delpy, Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 2, 2 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 145 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, Invest. Radiol. 35, 479 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. H. Mayer, J. S. Reynolds, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Appl. Opt. 38, 4930 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. Adams, Appl. Math. Comput. 34, 113 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. S. Patterson and B. W. Pogue, Appl. Opt. 33, 1963 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. Eppstein and D. E. Dougherty, Water Resources Res. 32, 3321 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 4160, 153 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, T. L. Troy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Appl. Opt. 38, 2138 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 3597, 97 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Lee and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 58 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 58 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 4160, 153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, Invest. Radiol. 35, 479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hawrysz and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Neoplasia 2, 388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Deghani, and D. T. Delpy, Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 2, 2 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1996

M. J. Eppstein and D. E. Dougherty, Water Resources Res. 32, 3321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

1989

J. C. Adams, Appl. Math. Comput. 34, 113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Achilefu, S.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, Invest. Radiol. 35, 479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, J. C.

J. C. Adams, Appl. Math. Comput. 34, 113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Deghani, and D. T. Delpy, Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 2, 2 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bugaj, J. E.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, Invest. Radiol. 35, 479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deghani, H.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Deghani, and D. T. Delpy, Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 2, 2 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Deghani, and D. T. Delpy, Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 2, 2 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dorshow, R. B.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, Invest. Radiol. 35, 479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougherty, D. E.

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 3597, 97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, T. L. Troy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Appl. Opt. 38, 2138 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein and D. E. Dougherty, Water Resources Res. 32, 3321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eppstein, M. J.

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 4160, 153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, T. L. Troy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Appl. Opt. 38, 2138 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 3597, 97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein and D. E. Dougherty, Water Resources Res. 32, 3321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fry, M. E.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Deghani, and D. T. Delpy, Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 2, 2 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hawrysz, D. J.

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hawrysz and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Neoplasia 2, 388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 4160, 153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 3597, 97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Deghani, and D. T. Delpy, Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 2, 2 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, E. M. C.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Deghani, and D. T. Delpy, Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 2, 2 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 58 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, R. H.

Patterson, M. S.

Pogue, B. W.

Rajagopalan, R.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, Invest. Radiol. 35, 479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, J. S.

Schmidt, F. E. W.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Deghani, and D. T. Delpy, Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 2, 2 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schweiger, M.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Deghani, and D. T. Delpy, Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 2, 2 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

J. Lee and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 58 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hawrysz and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Neoplasia 2, 388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 4160, 153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, T. L. Troy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Appl. Opt. 38, 2138 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Mayer, J. S. Reynolds, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Appl. Opt. 38, 4930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 3597, 97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Troy, T. L.

Appl. Math. Comput.

J. C. Adams, Appl. Math. Comput. 34, 113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Deghani, and D. T. Delpy, Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 2, 2 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Radiol.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, Invest. Radiol. 35, 479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Lee and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 58 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia

D. J. Hawrysz and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Neoplasia 2, 388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 4160, 153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 3597, 97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Water Resources Res.

M. J. Eppstein and D. E. Dougherty, Water Resources Res. 32, 3321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of phantom: x’s, source positions. An identical fiber optic array is on the other side.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

True distribution of the fluorophore’s absorption coefficient (relevant section of phantom). The inclusion:background values are 0.299 cm-1:0.00299 cm-1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tomographic image of fluorescence absorption coefficient reconstructed with (a) raw measurements and correlated measurement error covariance, (b) corrected measurements that ignore measurement error correlations, and (c) corrected measurements with correlated measurement error covariance. &boldtimes;’s, the two source positions in this part of the phantom.

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