Abstract

Soliton robustness to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) is compared, both analytically and numerically, with that of linear pulses that use first-order PMD compensation. It is found that soliton robustness to PMD is comparable with first-order PMD compensation and in some cases is even better. The effects of soliton control methods on soliton robustness to PMD were also investigated, and it was found that soliton control methods can significantly improve the soliton’s robustness to PMD, particularly for long-distance systems.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Karlsson, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, presented at the 26th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany , September 3–7, 2000.
  2. H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 50 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Mahgerefteh and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 340 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. F. Mollenauer, K. Smith, J. P. Gordon, and C. R. Menyuk, Opt. Lett. 14, 1219 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Matsumoto, Y. Akagi, and A. Hasegawa, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 584 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Xie, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 801 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Xie, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and H. Sunnerud, Electron. Lett. 36, 1575 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. I. Lakoba and D. J. Kaup, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6147 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and P. V. Mamyshev, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, I. P. Kaminow and T. L. Koch, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Chap.  12, pp. 450–453.
  10. A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 35, 76 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and S. G. Evangelides, Opt. Lett. 17, 1575 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and H. Sunnerud, Electron. Lett. 36, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. Mahgerefteh and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 35, 76 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Matsumoto, Y. Akagi, and A. Hasegawa, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Lakoba and D. J. Kaup, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

Akagi, Y.

M. Matsumoto, Y. Akagi, and A. Hasegawa, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

C. Xie, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and H. Sunnerud, Electron. Lett. 36, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Karlsson, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, presented at the 26th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany , September 3–7, 2000.

Evangelides, S. G.

Gordon, J. P.

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and S. G. Evangelides, Opt. Lett. 17, 1575 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, K. Smith, J. P. Gordon, and C. R. Menyuk, Opt. Lett. 14, 1219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and P. V. Mamyshev, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, I. P. Kaminow and T. L. Koch, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Chap.  12, pp. 450–453.

Hasegawa, A.

M. Matsumoto, Y. Akagi, and A. Hasegawa, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and H. Sunnerud, Electron. Lett. 36, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Karlsson, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, presented at the 26th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany , September 3–7, 2000.

Kaup, D. J.

T. I. Lakoba and D. J. Kaup, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 35, 76 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lakoba, T. I.

T. I. Lakoba and D. J. Kaup, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mahgerefteh, D.

D. Mahgerefteh and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P. V.

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and P. V. Mamyshev, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, I. P. Kaminow and T. L. Koch, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Chap.  12, pp. 450–453.

Matsumoto, M.

M. Matsumoto, Y. Akagi, and A. Hasegawa, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C. R.

D. Mahgerefteh and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, K. Smith, J. P. Gordon, and C. R. Menyuk, Opt. Lett. 14, 1219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and S. G. Evangelides, Opt. Lett. 17, 1575 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, K. Smith, J. P. Gordon, and C. R. Menyuk, Opt. Lett. 14, 1219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and P. V. Mamyshev, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, I. P. Kaminow and T. L. Koch, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Chap.  12, pp. 450–453.

Nakazawa, M.

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 35, 76 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sahara, A.

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 35, 76 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K.

Sunnerud, H.

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and H. Sunnerud, Electron. Lett. 36, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Karlsson, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, presented at the 26th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany , September 3–7, 2000.

Xie, C.

C. Xie, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and H. Sunnerud, Electron. Lett. 36, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

C. Xie, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and H. Sunnerud, Electron. Lett. 36, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 35, 76 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Mahgerefteh and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Matsumoto, Y. Akagi, and A. Hasegawa, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T. I. Lakoba and D. J. Kaup, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and P. V. Mamyshev, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, I. P. Kaminow and T. L. Koch, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Chap.  12, pp. 450–453.

M. Karlsson, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, presented at the 26th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany , September 3–7, 2000.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Analytical results of pulse broadening of soliton pulses and linear pulses with and without first-order PMD compensation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical results of average pulse broadening of soliton pulses for various values of GVD and linear pulses with and without first-order PMD compensation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Probability-density functions of pulse-width broadening for solitons and linear pulses with and without first-order PMD compensation: (a) Δτ21/2=τ0, (b) Δτ21/2=2.0τ0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effects of a soliton sliding-filter on soliton robustness to PMD.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

uz,t=rx^+sy^9/8A sechAt,
uz+Lc,t=eiθreiϕx^ sechAt-δt+se-iϕy^ sechAt+δt9/8A,
uz+Lc,t=eiθreiϕx^+se-iϕy^ sechAt-Δt+2rsAδts*eiϕx^-r*e-iϕ sechAttanhAt9/8A,
dEdz=-32729E3δt2Lc,
EzE0=11+πDp2z/24T021/2,
τzτ0=1+0.1081Δτ2/τ021/2,

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