Abstract

We investigated the relationship between the formation of filaments and local refractive-index changes induced by femtosecond laser pulses in silica glass. In situ observation revealed that the location of a filament coincided with that of the refractive-index change. Observation also showed that the region of refractive-index change was elongated toward the upstream direction of the laser pulses with increasing exposure time. The region of refractive-index change was several hundred micrometers long, and its diameter was smaller than 2 μm. The refractive-index change was confirmed by two of three different methods to be as large as 0.8×10-2.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and H. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, Opt. Lett. 21, 2023 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Homoelle, W. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, E. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, Opt. Lett. 24, 1311 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Hirao and K. Miura, Jpn. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H.-B. Sun, Y. Zu, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Opt. Rev. 6, 396 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Toma, Y. Furuya, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, Opt. Rev. 7, 14 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. N. Steinberg, Phys. Rev. A 4, 1182 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Marcuse, Appl. Opt. 18, 7 (1979).
  14. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Toma, Y. Furuya, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, Opt. Rev. 7, 14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

D. Homoelle, W. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, E. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, Opt. Lett. 24, 1311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, Y. Zu, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Opt. Rev. 6, 396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, Jpn. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. Marcuse, Appl. Opt. 18, 7 (1979).

1971 (1)

G. N. Steinberg, Phys. Rev. A 4, 1182 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, E. F.

Callan, J. P.

Cambell, E. E. B.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Du, D.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Furuya, Y.

T. Toma, Y. Furuya, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, Opt. Rev. 7, 14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Glezer, E. N.

Hayashi, K.

T. Toma, Y. Furuya, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, Opt. Rev. 7, 14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henz, S.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Her, T.-H.

Hermann, J.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, H.

Hirao, K.

K. Hirao and K. Miura, Jpn. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Homoelle, D.

Huang, L.

Inouye, H.

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

T. Toma, Y. Furuya, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, Opt. Rev. 7, 14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, H.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Appl. Opt. 18, 7 (1979).

Matsuo, S.

H.-B. Sun, Y. Zu, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Opt. Rev. 6, 396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Midorikawa, K.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Milosavljevic, M.

Misawa, H.

H.-B. Sun, Y. Zu, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Opt. Rev. 6, 396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Hirao and K. Miura, Jpn. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and H. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

T. Toma, Y. Furuya, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, Opt. Rev. 7, 14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, G. N.

G. N. Steinberg, Phys. Rev. A 4, 1182 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, H.-B.

H.-B. Sun, Y. Zu, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Opt. Rev. 6, 396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toma, T.

T. Toma, Y. Furuya, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, Opt. Rev. 7, 14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Varel, H.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

T. Toma, Y. Furuya, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, Opt. Rev. 7, 14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wielandy, W.

Yokota, I.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zu, Y.

H.-B. Sun, Y. Zu, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Opt. Rev. 6, 396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

D. Marcuse, Appl. Opt. 18, 7 (1979).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, Jpn. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (2)

H.-B. Sun, Y. Zu, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Opt. Rev. 6, 396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Toma, Y. Furuya, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, Opt. Rev. 7, 14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. N. Steinberg, Phys. Rev. A 4, 1182 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical setup for in situ observation of a filament and the region of refractive-index change in silica glass. ND, neutral-density filter; SH’s, shutters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relationship between a filament and the region of refractive-index change: optical images of (a) the filament and (b) the region of refractive-index change.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variations of refractive-index change for different pulse energies.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variations of refractive-index change generated by a single filament for different exposure times.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Waveguide output profile at 633  nm. A near-field image is shown on the right-hand side.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive-Index Changes Estimated by Three Methods

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Refractive-Index Change for Various NA’s of the Focusing Lens

Metrics