Abstract

Monitoring of free gas embedded in scattering media, such as wood, fruits, and synthetic materials, is demonstrated by use of diode laser spectroscopy combined with sensitive modulation techniques. Gas detection is made possible by the contrast of the narrow absorptive feature of the free-gas molecules with the slow wavelength dependence of the absorption and scattering cross sections in solids and liquids. An absorption sensitivity of 2.5×10-4, corresponding to a 1.25-mm air column, is demonstrated by measurements of dispersed molecular oxygen. These techniques open up new possibilities for characterization and diagnostics, including internal gas pressure and gas-exchange assessment, in organic and synthetic materials.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, S. Svanberg, and O. Jarlman, Opt. Lett. 15, 1179 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Müller, B. Chance, R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. van der Zee, eds., Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, Vol. 11 of SPIE Institute Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1993).
  3. J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. M. Star, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 763 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, and B.-C. Lin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. E. Shafer and R. N. Zare, Phys. Today 44(10), 48 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. I. Schiff, G. I. Macay, and J. Bechara, in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., Vol.  127 of Chemical Physics Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap.  5.
  9. J. A. Silver, Appl. Opt. 31, 707 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, and J. A. Silver, Appl. Opt. 31, 718 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. G. C. Bijnen, H. Zuckermann, F. J. M. Harren, and J. Reuss, Appl. Opt. 37, 3345 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. J. M. Harren, in Encylcopedia of Analytical Chemistry: Applications, Theory and Instrumentation, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, New York, 2000), pp. 2203–2226.
  13. S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, and S. Svanberg, J. Photochem. Photobiol. 16, 155 (1992).
  14. B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Berg, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 32, 574 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Star, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1992

1991

N. E. Shafer and R. N. Zare, Phys. Today 44(10), 48 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, and B.-C. Lin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, S. Svanberg, and O. Jarlman, Opt. Lett. 15, 1179 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, and S. Svanberg, J. Photochem. Photobiol. 16, 155 (1992).

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, S. Svanberg, and O. Jarlman, Opt. Lett. 15, 1179 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechara, J.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Macay, and J. Bechara, in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., Vol.  127 of Chemical Physics Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap.  5.

Berg, R.

Bijnen, F. G. C.

Bomse, D. S.

Boretsky, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Clermont, A. C.

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, and B.-C. Lin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, P.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörschel, K.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finander, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Friebel, M.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenfeld, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, A.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harren, F. J. M.

F. G. C. Bijnen, H. Zuckermann, F. J. M. Harren, and J. Reuss, Appl. Opt. 37, 3345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. J. M. Harren, in Encylcopedia of Analytical Chemistry: Applications, Theory and Instrumentation, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, New York, 2000), pp. 2203–2226.

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarlman, O.

Kaufmann, K.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, J. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Levy, W.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.-C.

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, and B.-C. Lin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macay, G. I.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Macay, and J. Bechara, in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., Vol.  127 of Chemical Physics Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap.  5.

Mendelson, Y.

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, and B.-C. Lin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyake, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Müller, G.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Peura, R. A.

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, and B.-C. Lin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reuss, J.

Roggan, A.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiff, H. I.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Macay, and J. Bechara, in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., Vol.  127 of Chemical Physics Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap.  5.

Shafer, N. E.

N. E. Shafer and R. N. Zare, Phys. Today 44(10), 48 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Smith, D. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. C.

Star, W. M.

W. M. Star, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

Yoshioka, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Young, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

N. E. Shafer and R. N. Zare, Phys. Today 44(10), 48 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zuckermann, H.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, and B.-C. Lin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol.

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, and S. Svanberg, J. Photochem. Photobiol. 16, 155 (1992).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Star, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today

N. E. Shafer and R. N. Zare, Phys. Today 44(10), 48 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. J. M. Harren, in Encylcopedia of Analytical Chemistry: Applications, Theory and Instrumentation, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, New York, 2000), pp. 2203–2226.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Macay, and J. Bechara, in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., Vol.  127 of Chemical Physics Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap.  5.

G. Müller, B. Chance, R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. van der Zee, eds., Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, Vol. 11 of SPIE Institute Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1993).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a), (b) Basic geometrical arrangements for monitoring of free gas in scattering media. (c) Experimental setup of the initial experiments. DL, diode laser; I, current; T, temperature control; Ref., reference.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental data for lines in the molecular oxygen A band obtained by wavelength-modulation diode laser spectroscopy. (a) Standard addition plot for a 10-mm-thick piece of wood, (b) corresponding recorded line shape for wood only, (c) spectral recording for a 26-mm-thick slice of apple, and (d) spectra for a 19-mm-thick bulk of turbid epoxy containing air bubbles at low pressure and when 50  mm of background air is added. The isolated molecular oxygen line was used in these last two recordings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recording of the oxygen-signal increase of a 19-mm-thick piece of polystyrene foam while it is kept in ambient air but after it has been stored in a pure nitrogen atmosphere.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Equivalent Mean Path Lengths for Oxygen-Containing Porous Media of Various Thicknesses

Metrics