Abstract

The simultaneous detection of TE- as well as TM-polarized light with a photon scanning tunneling microscope leads to a quasi-interference pattern of these mutually perpendicular polarized fields. This interference pattern has been observed in the optical field distribution as a function of both position and wavelength. Comparison of experimental data with simulations confirms the interference of mutually orthogonal fields. This quasi interference is caused by conversion of the linearly polarized light of both modes into elliptically polarized light by a fiber probe.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, and B. E. Little, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Propstra and N. F. van Hulst, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 180, 165 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. G. Borgonjen, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, and N. F. van Hulst, Proc. SPIE 2535, 125 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. L. M. Balistreri, D. J. W. Klunder, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Opt. Lett. 24, 1829 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (4)

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, and B. E. Little, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, D. J. W. Klunder, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Opt. Lett. 24, 1829 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Propstra and N. F. van Hulst, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 180, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Borgonjen, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, and N. F. van Hulst, Proc. SPIE 2535, 125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allovon, M.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appelbaum, I.

S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balistreri, M. L. M.

Barthe, F.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blom, F. C.

Boccara, A. C.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borgonjen, E. G.

E. G. Borgonjen, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, and N. F. van Hulst, Proc. SPIE 2535, 125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bourzeix, S.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, A.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. B.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choo, A. G.

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, and B. E. Little, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Brabander, G. N.

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

Fan, S.

S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, and B. E. Little, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grober, R. D.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H. W. J. M.

Jackson, H. E.

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Joannoppoulos, J. D.

S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, T.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, and B. E. Little, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karrai, K.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klunder, D. J. W.

Knight, J. C.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kokobun, Y.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, and B. E. Little, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korterik, J. P.

Kuipers, L.

Licoppe, C.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, and B. E. Little, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mersali, B.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mignard, F.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moers, M. H. P.

E. G. Borgonjen, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, and N. F. van Hulst, Proc. SPIE 2535, 125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moison, J. M.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, and B. E. Little, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parker, G. J.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, P. L.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Propstra, K.

K. Propstra and N. F. van Hulst, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 180, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ruiter, A. G. T.

E. G. Borgonjen, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, and N. F. van Hulst, Proc. SPIE 2535, 125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

St. J. Russell, P.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, U.

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ünlü, M. S.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, and B. E. Little, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

M. L. M. Balistreri, D. J. W. Klunder, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Opt. Lett. 24, 1829 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Borgonjen, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, and N. F. van Hulst, Proc. SPIE 2535, 125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Propstra and N. F. van Hulst, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 180, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vander Rhodes, G. H.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, and B. E. Little, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, and B. E. Little, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (Oxford) (1)

K. Propstra and N. F. van Hulst, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 180, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. G. Borgonjen, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, and N. F. van Hulst, Proc. SPIE 2535, 125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PSTM maps (7.5 µm by 10 µm) of a Si3N4 channel waveguide on a SiO2 substrate: A, Topography of the channel waveguide with a width of 2.5 µm and a ridge height of 2 nm. The thickness of the guiding layer (not measured with the PSTM) is 120 nm. B, Optical field distribution of a single TE00 mode (incoupling polarization angle Φ=0°). C, Optical field distribution of both a TM00 mode and a TE00 mode Φ=45°. The mode beat length is 4.11 µm. D, Optical field distribution of a single TM00 mode Φ=90°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the detected optical intensity on Φ. The fiber probe is scanned in the center of the channel waveguide along the propagation direction. Φ has been changed in discrete steps of 15° from 0° and 90°. Between consecutive changes of Φ the laser beam has been blocked (arrows).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A, Schematic of the wavelength-dependent measurement of a channel waveguide. The fiber probe is positioned in the middle of the waveguide at a distance L from the incoupling facet of the waveguide. The fiber is not scanned. The wavelength of the incident light is scanned from 669 to 673 nm. The distance between measuring positions 1 and 2 is 1.3(3) mm; between measuring positions 1 and 3, 2.3(3). The Si3N4 channel waveguide on a SiO2 substrate has a width of 2.5 µm, a height of 9 nm, and a thickness of the guiding layer of 175 nm. B, position 1 for Φ=0° (TE00 mode only). No interference is observed. C, position 1 for Φ=10° (TE00 and TM00 modes). Spectral interference with a period of 0.57(4) nm is observed. D, position 2 for Φ=10° (TE00 and TM00 modes). Spectral interference with a period of 0.81(7) nm is observed. E, position 3 for Φ=10° (TE00 and TM00 modes). Spectral interference with a period of 1.1(2) nm, is observed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarization of the detected light on the analyzer. The detected light of the fiber probe is analyzed with an analyzer from 0° to 180° in discrete steps of 15° for Φ=0° (TE00 mode only) and 90° (TM00 mode only).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Measured (Exp.) Spatial Interference [Mode Beat Length (μm)] and the Spectral Interference [Distance L1-L2 (mm)] with the Calculated (Theory) Spatial and Spectral Interference

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δφ=2πLλnTMλ-nTEλ,
dnTE-nTMdλnTE-nTMλ.

Metrics