Abstract

We present experimental results of an imaging technique that uses as a local probe the optical field enhanced at the junction of a scanning tunneling microscope illuminated by a p-polarized laser beam. Images of highly oriented pyrolithic graphite, recorded at a constant height mode, show a lateral optical resolution of as much as 10 nm. Approach curves exhibit sensitivity on a subnanometer scale of the optical signal to the tip–sample distance, yielding the ultrahigh vertical resolution reached in the images.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984); Near-Field Optics, Theory, Instrumentation, and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 19, 159 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 134, 31 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Science 249, 1083 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, Appl. Opt. 36, 2160 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. U. Ch. Fischer and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Jersch, F. Demming, and K. Dickmann, Appl. Phys. A 64, 29 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. K. Aravind and H. Metiu, Surf. Sci. 124, 506 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. V. Zayats, Opt. Commun. 161, 156 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Righini and S. Selci, presented at the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirayama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.
  16. A. V. Bragas, S. M. Landi, and O. E. Martínez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2075 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Carminati and J. J. Greffet, Opt. Lett. 21, 1208 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. V. Zayats, Opt. Commun. 161, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A. V. Bragas, S. M. Landi, and O. E. Martínez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Mononobe and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (6)

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 134, 31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, Appl. Opt. 36, 2160 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Jersch, F. Demming, and K. Dickmann, Appl. Phys. A 64, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Science 249, 1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 19, 159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

U. Ch. Fischer and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984); Near-Field Optics, Theory, Instrumentation, and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

P. K. Aravind and H. Metiu, Surf. Sci. 124, 506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Aravind, P. K.

P. K. Aravind and H. Metiu, Surf. Sci. 124, 506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Bian, R. X.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

Bragas, A. V.

A. V. Bragas, S. M. Landi, and O. E. Martínez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati and J. J. Greffet, Opt. Lett. 21, 1208 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demming, F.

J. Jersch, F. Demming, and K. Dickmann, Appl. Phys. A 64, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984); Near-Field Optics, Theory, Instrumentation, and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Dickmann, K.

J. Jersch, F. Demming, and K. Dickmann, Appl. Phys. A 64, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, U. Ch.

U. Ch. Fischer and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleyzes, P.

Greffet, J. J.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati and J. J. Greffet, Opt. Lett. 21, 1208 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 134, 31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 19, 159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jersch, J.

J. Jersch, F. Demming, and K. Dickmann, Appl. Phys. A 64, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 134, 31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 19, 159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Landi, S. M.

A. V. Bragas, S. M. Landi, and O. E. Martínez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984); Near-Field Optics, Theory, Instrumentation, and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Madrazo, A.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, O. E.

A. V. Bragas, S. M. Landi, and O. E. Martínez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Metiu, H.

P. K. Aravind and H. Metiu, Surf. Sci. 124, 506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mononobe, S.

S. Mononobe and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Science 249, 1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Mononobe and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

U. Ch. Fischer and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984); Near-Field Optics, Theory, Instrumentation, and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Righini, M.

M. Righini and S. Selci, presented at the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirayama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

Saiki, T.

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Selci, S.

M. Righini and S. Selci, presented at the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirayama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

Suzuki, T.

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Science 249, 1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Zayats, Opt. Commun. 161, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Science 249, 1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. Jersch, F. Demming, and K. Dickmann, Appl. Phys. A 64, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. V. Bragas, S. M. Landi, and O. E. Martínez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984); Near-Field Optics, Theory, Instrumentation, and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Mononobe and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. V. Zayats, Opt. Commun. 161, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 134, 31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

U. Ch. Fischer and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Science 249, 1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

P. K. Aravind and H. Metiu, Surf. Sci. 124, 506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Righini and S. Selci, presented at the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirayama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the field-enhanced scanning optical microscope. A p-polarized laser beam is focused from the side into the tunneling junction of a STM at an angle γ. A remote detector collects the topical signal coming from the junction, and a lock-in amplifier reads the signal at the frequency of sample dithering. Tunneling and optical signals are acquired by the STM electronics and imaged simultaneously. Optical field enhancement at the apex of the cut silver tip acts as the local probe, sensing optical and topographic properties from the sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical power versus tip–sample distance, showing the optical signal coming from a HOPG. High vertical sensitivity is clearly shown. Inset, a log–log graph. 1Å=0.1 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of a graphite sample recorded at the CHM. STM and optical signals are shown in the top and bottom pictures, respectively. The vertical scales are in arbitrary units for both images. Very weak lateral fringes are present in the optical image as a result of the low scattering coming from the HOPG. Although the resolution is similar for the two images, some features, marked A and B, appear brighter in the tunneling current and darker in the optical image.

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