Abstract

A scanning homodyne Michelson interferometer is constructed for two-dimensional imaging of high-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) fields in SAW devices. The interferometer possesses a sensitivity of 10-5 nm/Hz, and it is capable of directly measuring SAW’s with frequencies ranging from 0.5 MHz up to 1 GHz. The fast scheme used for locating the optimum operation point of the interferometer facilitates high measuring speeds, up to 50,000 points/h. The measured field image has a lateral resolution of better than 1 µm. The fully optical noninvasive scanning system can be applied to SAW device development and research, providing information on acoustic wave distribution that cannot be obtained by merely electrical measurements.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. C. W. Ruppel, W. Ruile, G. Scholl, K. Ch. Wagner, and O. Männer, in Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 313.
  2. C. S. Hartmann and V. P. Plessky, in Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994), p. 1247.
  3. T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1372 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Behme, T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 882 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Jen and C. S. Hartmann, in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), p. 33.
  6. G. Sölkner, A. Ginter, and H.-P. Grassl, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 122, 43 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ginter and G. Sölkner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2295 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Holm, P. Wallner, W. Ruile, and R. Weigel, in Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 153.
  9. J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1115 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Koskela, J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2683 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. T. Tikka, J. Kaitila, M. Ylilammi, J. V. Knuuttila, T. Makkonen, K. Hashimoto, and M. M. Salomaa, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 1143.
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Royer and E. Dieulesaint, in Proceedings of the 1986 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), p. 527.
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. L. Jungerman, J. E. Bowers, J. B. Green, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 313 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. E. Bowers, R. L. Jungerman, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and G. S. Kino, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 429 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. C. Shen and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4758 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Sontag and A. C. Tam, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 33, 500 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. B. Scruby and L. E. Drain, Laser Ultrasonics (Hilger, London, 1990).
  18. V. P. Plessky, RF Design 21, 46 (1998).

1999 (2)

J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Koskela, J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. Behme, T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Plessky, RF Design 21, 46 (1998).

1997 (2)

T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4758 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Ginter and G. Sölkner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2295 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Sölkner, A. Ginter, and H.-P. Grassl, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 122, 43 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. Sontag and A. C. Tam, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 33, 500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. E. Bowers, R. L. Jungerman, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and G. S. Kino, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 429 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. L. Jungerman, J. E. Bowers, J. B. Green, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Behme, G.

G. Behme, T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

J. E. Bowers, R. L. Jungerman, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and G. S. Kino, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 429 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Jungerman, J. E. Bowers, J. B. Green, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chilla, E.

G. Behme, T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dieulesaint, E.

A. Royer and E. Dieulesaint, in Proceedings of the 1986 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), p. 527.
[CrossRef]

Drain, L. E.

C. B. Scruby and L. E. Drain, Laser Ultrasonics (Hilger, London, 1990).

Fröhlich, H.-J.

G. Behme, T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ginter, A.

A. Ginter and G. Sölkner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2295 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Sölkner, A. Ginter, and H.-P. Grassl, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 122, 43 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H.-P.

G. Sölkner, A. Ginter, and H.-P. Grassl, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 122, 43 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. B.

R. L. Jungerman, J. E. Bowers, J. B. Green, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, C. S.

J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Koskela, J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jen and C. S. Hartmann, in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), p. 33.

C. S. Hartmann and V. P. Plessky, in Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994), p. 1247.

Hashimoto, K.

P. T. Tikka, J. Kaitila, M. Ylilammi, J. V. Knuuttila, T. Makkonen, K. Hashimoto, and M. M. Salomaa, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 1143.
[CrossRef]

Hesjedal, T.

G. Behme, T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

Y. C. Shen and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4758 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holm, A.

A. Holm, P. Wallner, W. Ruile, and R. Weigel, in Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 153.

Jen, S.

S. Jen and C. S. Hartmann, in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), p. 33.

Jungerman, R. L.

J. E. Bowers, R. L. Jungerman, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and G. S. Kino, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 429 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Jungerman, J. E. Bowers, J. B. Green, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kaitila, J.

P. T. Tikka, J. Kaitila, M. Ylilammi, J. V. Knuuttila, T. Makkonen, K. Hashimoto, and M. M. Salomaa, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 1143.
[CrossRef]

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

J. E. Bowers, R. L. Jungerman, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and G. S. Kino, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 429 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

J. E. Bowers, R. L. Jungerman, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and G. S. Kino, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 429 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Jungerman, J. E. Bowers, J. B. Green, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Knuuttila, J. V.

J. Koskela, J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Tikka, J. Kaitila, M. Ylilammi, J. V. Knuuttila, T. Makkonen, K. Hashimoto, and M. M. Salomaa, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 1143.
[CrossRef]

Koskela, J.

J. Koskela, J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Makkonen, T.

P. T. Tikka, J. Kaitila, M. Ylilammi, J. V. Knuuttila, T. Makkonen, K. Hashimoto, and M. M. Salomaa, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 1143.
[CrossRef]

Männer, O.

C. C. W. Ruppel, W. Ruile, G. Scholl, K. Ch. Wagner, and O. Männer, in Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 313.

Plessky, V. P.

J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Koskela, J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Plessky, RF Design 21, 46 (1998).

C. S. Hartmann and V. P. Plessky, in Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994), p. 1247.

Royer, A.

A. Royer and E. Dieulesaint, in Proceedings of the 1986 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), p. 527.
[CrossRef]

Ruile, W.

C. C. W. Ruppel, W. Ruile, G. Scholl, K. Ch. Wagner, and O. Männer, in Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 313.

A. Holm, P. Wallner, W. Ruile, and R. Weigel, in Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 153.

Ruppel, C. C. W.

C. C. W. Ruppel, W. Ruile, G. Scholl, K. Ch. Wagner, and O. Männer, in Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 313.

Salomaa, M. M.

J. Koskela, J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Tikka, J. Kaitila, M. Ylilammi, J. V. Knuuttila, T. Makkonen, K. Hashimoto, and M. M. Salomaa, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 1143.
[CrossRef]

Scholl, G.

C. C. W. Ruppel, W. Ruile, G. Scholl, K. Ch. Wagner, and O. Männer, in Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 313.

Scruby, C. B.

C. B. Scruby and L. E. Drain, Laser Ultrasonics (Hilger, London, 1990).

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4758 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sölkner, G.

A. Ginter and G. Sölkner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2295 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Sölkner, A. Ginter, and H.-P. Grassl, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 122, 43 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sontag, H.

H. Sontag and A. C. Tam, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 33, 500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tam, A. C.

H. Sontag and A. C. Tam, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 33, 500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tikka, P. T.

J. Koskela, J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Tikka, J. Kaitila, M. Ylilammi, J. V. Knuuttila, T. Makkonen, K. Hashimoto, and M. M. Salomaa, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 1143.
[CrossRef]

Wagner, K. Ch.

C. C. W. Ruppel, W. Ruile, G. Scholl, K. Ch. Wagner, and O. Männer, in Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 313.

Wallner, P.

A. Holm, P. Wallner, W. Ruile, and R. Weigel, in Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 153.

Weigel, R.

A. Holm, P. Wallner, W. Ruile, and R. Weigel, in Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 153.

Ylilammi, M.

P. T. Tikka, J. Kaitila, M. Ylilammi, J. V. Knuuttila, T. Makkonen, K. Hashimoto, and M. M. Salomaa, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 1143.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Behme, T. Hesjedal, E. Chilla, and H.-J. Fröhlich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ginter and G. Sölkner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2295 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Koskela, J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Jungerman, J. E. Bowers, J. B. Green, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. V. Knuuttila, P. T. Tikka, C. S. Hartmann, V. P. Plessky, and M. M. Salomaa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

H. Sontag and A. C. Tam, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 33, 500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. C. Shen and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4758 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. E. Bowers, R. L. Jungerman, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and G. S. Kino, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 429 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (1)

G. Sölkner, A. Ginter, and H.-P. Grassl, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 122, 43 (1989).
[CrossRef]

RF Design (1)

V. P. Plessky, RF Design 21, 46 (1998).

Other (7)

C. B. Scruby and L. E. Drain, Laser Ultrasonics (Hilger, London, 1990).

P. T. Tikka, J. Kaitila, M. Ylilammi, J. V. Knuuttila, T. Makkonen, K. Hashimoto, and M. M. Salomaa, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 1143.
[CrossRef]

A. Royer and E. Dieulesaint, in Proceedings of the 1986 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), p. 527.
[CrossRef]

A. Holm, P. Wallner, W. Ruile, and R. Weigel, in Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), p. 153.

S. Jen and C. S. Hartmann, in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), p. 33.

C. C. W. Ruppel, W. Ruile, G. Scholl, K. Ch. Wagner, and O. Männer, in Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 313.

C. S. Hartmann and V. P. Plessky, in Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994), p. 1247.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of our scanning homodyne Michelson interferometer. The thick arrows (at right angles) indicate the polarization vectors of the laser beam. The second photodetector records the intensity of the beam reflected from the SAW sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference signal is linear in the drive—to a fair approximation—for amplitudes above the noise-floor level -97 dBm of the interferometer. The signal decreases by 6 dB when the SAW amplitude decreases by a factor of 2; i.e., the interferometer signal represents the power density of the SAW. The arrows indicate the amplitudes at which the internal attenuation of the Hewlett-Packard drive-signal generator changes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(left) Reflected light power and (right) the SAW amplitude field image on top of the resonator and the surrounding busbar reveal unwanted leakage of acoustic power. The amplitude scale indicates the power density of the SAW in decibels, with the highest measured amplitude set as the reference level, and the scale for reflectivity is in arbitrary units.

Equations (2)

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im=14ηgePhνrs+rref+2rsrref cos4πΔdλ,
Amin=14δhνηP1/2Δf1/2,

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