Abstract

We demonstrate the use of a deformable-mirror pulse shaper, combined with an evolutionary optimization algorithm, to correct high-order residual phase aberrations in a 1-mJ, 1-kHz, 15-fs laser amplifier. Frequency-resolved optical gating measurements reveal that the output pulse duration of 15.2 fs is within our measurement error of the theoretical transform limit. This technique significantly reduces the pulse duration and the temporal prepulse energy of the pulse while increasing the peak intensity by 26%. It is demonstrated, for what is believed to be the first time, that the problem of pedestals in laser amplifiers can be addressed by spectral-domain correction.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 71–72.
  2. S. Backus, C. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, T. Kase, Y. Akahane, and H. Takuma, Opt. Lett. 23, 1468 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, C. Herne, Z. Chang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. W. Siders, S. P. LeBlanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Linde, Appl. Phys. B 68, 315 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. E. Lemoff and C. P. J. Barty, Opt. Lett. 18, 1651 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 188 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Fittinghoff, B. Walker, J. Squier, C. Toth, C. Rose-Petruck, and C. Barty, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 430 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielman, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 19, 201 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 22, 1793 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Efimov, M. Moores, N. Beach, J. Krause, and D. Reitze, Opt. Lett. 23, 1915 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Efimov and D. Reitze, Opt. Lett. 23, 1612 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Zeek, K. Maginnis, S. Backus, U. Russek, M. Murnane, G. R. Mourou, H. Kapteyn, and G. Vdovin, Opt. Lett. 24, 493 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. Krumbugel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. M. Gold, H. Nathel, and W. White, Opt. Lett. 18, 134 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Backus, C. G. I. Durfee, G. A. Mourou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Opt. Lett. 22, 1256 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Heitkotter and D. Beasley, “The hitchhiker’s guide to evolutionary computation (FAQ),” USENET: comp.ai.genetic (1997).

1999 (5)

D. Linde, Appl. Phys. B 68, 315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, K. Maginnis, S. Backus, U. Russek, M. Murnane, G. R. Mourou, H. Kapteyn, and G. Vdovin, Opt. Lett. 24, 493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, T. Kase, Y. Akahane, and H. Takuma, Opt. Lett. 23, 1468 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov and D. Reitze, Opt. Lett. 23, 1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, M. Moores, N. Beach, J. Krause, and D. Reitze, Opt. Lett. 23, 1915 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, C. Herne, Z. Chang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Backus, C. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Fittinghoff, B. Walker, J. Squier, C. Toth, C. Rose-Petruck, and C. Barty, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (3)

C. W. Siders, S. P. LeBlanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Barty, G. Korn, F. Raksi, C. Rose-Petruck, J. Squier, A. Tian, K. Wilson, V. Yakovlev, and K. Yamakawa, Opt. Lett. 21, 219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

Akahane, Y.

Aoyama, M.

Babine, A.

C. W. Siders, S. P. LeBlanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

Bagnoud, V.

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 71–72.

Balling, P.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C.

D. Fittinghoff, B. Walker, J. Squier, C. Toth, C. Rose-Petruck, and C. Barty, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Barty, G. Korn, F. Raksi, C. Rose-Petruck, J. Squier, A. Tian, K. Wilson, V. Yakovlev, and K. Yamakawa, Opt. Lett. 21, 219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barty, C. P. J.

Beach, N.

Brixner, T.

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, C. Herne, Z. Chang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chin, A. H.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K.

R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. Krumbugel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, S. P. LeBlanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, C.

S. Backus, C. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, C. Herne, Z. Chang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, C. G. I.

Efimov, A.

Ferencz, K.

Fisher, D.

C. W. Siders, S. P. LeBlanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D.

D. Fittinghoff, B. Walker, J. Squier, C. Toth, C. Rose-Petruck, and C. Barty, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. Krumbugel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, G.

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glover, T. E.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gold, D. M.

Grimes, M. K.

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herne, C.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, C. Herne, Z. Chang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D.

R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. Krumbugel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

Kapteyn, H. C.

S. Backus, C. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, C. Herne, Z. Chang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Backus, C. G. I. Durfee, G. A. Mourou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Opt. Lett. 22, 1256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. M. Gold, H. Nathel, and W. White, Opt. Lett. 18, 134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kase, T.

Kim, K. J.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Krause, J.

Krausz, F.

Krumbugel, M.

R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. Krumbugel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, S. P.

C. W. Siders, S. P. LeBlanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-S.

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leemans, W. P.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lemoff, B. E.

Linde, D.

D. Linde, Appl. Phys. B 68, 315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maginnis, K.

Matsuoka, S.

Meshulach, D.

Moores, M.

Mourou, G. A.

Mourou, G. R.

Murnane, M.

Murnane, M. M.

S. Backus, C. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, C. Herne, Z. Chang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Backus, C. G. I. Durfee, G. A. Mourou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Opt. Lett. 22, 1256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. M. Gold, H. Nathel, and W. White, Opt. Lett. 18, 134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nathel, H.

Nelson, K.

Raksi, F.

Reitze, D.

Richman, B.

R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. Krumbugel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rose-Petruck, C.

D. Fittinghoff, B. Walker, J. Squier, C. Toth, C. Rose-Petruck, and C. Barty, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Barty, G. Korn, F. Raksi, C. Rose-Petruck, J. Squier, A. Tian, K. Wilson, V. Yakovlev, and K. Yamakawa, Opt. Lett. 21, 219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, C. Herne, Z. Chang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A. R.

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russek, U.

Salin, F.

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 71–72.

Schoenlein, R. W.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sergeev, A.

C. W. Siders, S. P. LeBlanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shank, C. V.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C. W.

C. W. Siders, S. P. LeBlanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

Spielman, C.

Squier, J.

D. Fittinghoff, B. Walker, J. Squier, C. Toth, C. Rose-Petruck, and C. Barty, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Barty, G. Korn, F. Raksi, C. Rose-Petruck, J. Squier, A. Tian, K. Wilson, V. Yakovlev, and K. Yamakawa, Opt. Lett. 21, 219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A.

C. W. Siders, S. P. LeBlanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strehle, M.

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J.

R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. Krumbugel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Szipocs, R.

Tajima, T.

C. W. Siders, S. P. LeBlanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takuma, H.

Tian, A.

Toth, C.

D. Fittinghoff, B. Walker, J. Squier, C. Toth, C. Rose-Petruck, and C. Barty, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. Krumbugel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, G.

Walker, B.

D. Fittinghoff, B. Walker, J. Squier, C. Toth, C. Rose-Petruck, and C. Barty, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wefers, M.

White, W.

Wilson, K.

Wolfbeyn, P.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

Yamakawa, K.

Yelin, D.

Zeek, E.

Zolotorev, M.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. Linde, Appl. Phys. B 68, 315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Fittinghoff, B. Walker, J. Squier, C. Toth, C. Rose-Petruck, and C. Barty, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (10)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. W. Siders, S. P. LeBlanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. Backus, C. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. Krumbugel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Wolfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, C. Herne, Z. Chang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 71–72.

J. Heitkotter and D. Beasley, “The hitchhiker’s guide to evolutionary computation (FAQ),” USENET: comp.ai.genetic (1997).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

15-fs amplifier system with a MMDM pulse shaper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Amplifier output: (a) pulse spectrum before optimization, (b) group delay before optimization, (c) predicted spectrum before optimization, (d) predicted group delay before optimization, (e) measured group delay after optimization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output pulse on a logrithmic scale: (a) before optimization (18 fs), (b) after optimization (15.2 fs), (c) transform limit of the measured spectrum (15.1 fs).

Metrics