Abstract

A novel interferometry technique is presented by which, in one shot, one can measure phase changes with a resolution of tens of femtoseconds while extending the measurement over picoseconds or even longer. The method is based on spectral (frequency-domain) interferometry with a pair of linearly chirped pules as probes. With this technique we obtained single-shot measurements of the rapid phase changes induced by optical field ionization of air. This allowed us to calculate the time profile of the electron density created by an intense short laser pulse.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, Opt. Lett. 19, 1997 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  6. G. S. Beddard, G. G. McFadyen, G. D. Reid, and J. R. G. Thorne, Chem. Phys. Lett. 198, 641 (1992).
  7. P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marques, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Born and E. Wolf, eds., Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 524.
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  12. L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JEPT 20, 1307 (1965).

1999 (2)

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marques, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

E. Tokunaga, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, Opt. Lett. 17, 1131 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Beddard, G. G. McFadyen, G. D. Reid, and J. R. G. Thorne, Chem. Phys. Lett. 198, 641 (1992).

1991 (1)

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).

1989 (1)

T. Tokizaki, Y. Ishida, and T. Yajima, Opt. Commun. 71, 355 (1989).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JEPT 20, 1307 (1965).

Amiranoff, F.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marques, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999).
[Crossref]

Antonetti, A.

Arnaud, J. A.

Audebert, P.

Beddard, G. S.

G. S. Beddard, G. G. McFadyen, G. D. Reid, and J. R. G. Thorne, Chem. Phys. Lett. 198, 641 (1992).

Carlson, R. J.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).

Chessa, P.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marques, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chien, C. Y.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cina, J. A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).

Colombeau, B.

Comtois, D.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

De Wispelaere, E.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marques, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999).
[Crossref]

Desparois, A.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dorchies, F.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marques, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dos Santos, A.

Du, M.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).

Fallies, F.

Fleming, G. R.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).

Froehly, C.

Gauthier, J. C.

Geindre, J. P.

Hamoniaux, G.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marques, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, Opt. Lett. 19, 1997 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishida, Y.

T. Tokizaki, Y. Ishida, and T. Yajima, Opt. Commun. 71, 355 (1989).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

Johnston, T. W.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kane, D. J.

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JEPT 20, 1307 (1965).

Kieffer, J. C.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

La Fontaine, B.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

Malka, V.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marques, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999).
[Crossref]

Marques, J. R.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marques, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999).
[Crossref]

Matro, A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).

McFadyen, G. G.

G. S. Beddard, G. G. McFadyen, G. D. Reid, and J. R. G. Thorne, Chem. Phys. Lett. 198, 641 (1992).

Mercure, H. P.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mora, P.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marques, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Pépin, H.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

Piasecki, J.

Reid, G. D.

G. S. Beddard, G. G. McFadyen, G. D. Reid, and J. R. G. Thorne, Chem. Phys. Lett. 198, 641 (1992).

Rice, S. A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).

Romero-Rochin, V.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).

Rousse, A.

Ruggiero, A. J.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).

Scherer, N. F.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).

Terasaki, A.

Thorne, J. R. G.

G. S. Beddard, G. G. McFadyen, G. D. Reid, and J. R. G. Thorne, Chem. Phys. Lett. 198, 641 (1992).

Tokizaki, T.

T. Tokizaki, Y. Ishida, and T. Yajima, Opt. Commun. 71, 355 (1989).
[Crossref]

Tokunaga, E.

Trebino, R.

Vampouille, M.

Vidal, F.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yajima, T.

T. Tokizaki, Y. Ishida, and T. Yajima, Opt. Commun. 71, 355 (1989).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. S. Beddard, G. G. McFadyen, G. D. Reid, and J. R. G. Thorne, Chem. Phys. Lett. 198, 641 (1992).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Tokizaki, Y. Ishida, and T. Yajima, Opt. Commun. 71, 355 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marques, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. JEPT (1)

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JEPT 20, 1307 (1965).

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, eds., Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 524.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. B.S., beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical CPSI interferogram with 1.1-ps positively chirped probe pulses separated by 1.6 ps. (a) Reference interferogram obtained without the pump pulse. (b) Results obtained with the pump pulse. The fringe shift increases toward the right-hand side, owing to the production of free electrons by the pump beam as the probe crosses the interaction region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical CPSI interferogram obtained by use of 2.0-ps negatively chirped probe pulses separated by 1.6 ps. As expected, the fringe shift increases toward the left-hand side, which is the opposite of the effect shown in Fig. 2(b) for the positive chirp on the probe beam. The interaction length is L=1.35 mm/5.0×cos 45°380 µm, where 5.0 is the imaging magnification factor and 45° is the angle between the pump and the probe beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lineouts taken from Fig. 3. Solid curve, reference lineout; dashed curve, signal lineout. Each lineout is normalized to its own maximum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured electron density as a function of time (filled circles) with the simulation (solid curve), obtained by use of the Keldysh theory of photoionization. Dashed curve, 2.0-ps Gaussian laser pulse with maximum intensity 6.6×1013 W/cm2 that was used for the simulation. The maximum ionization rate occurs at the peak of the pump pulse.

Equations (3)

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IωI0ωcosωτ+Δϕt0,
IωiI0ωicosωiτ+Δϕt=ωit-ω0/b,
dne,pho/dt=nsWsI,

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