Abstract

Tightly confined, low-loss waveguides in highly nonlinear materials permit nonlinear optical interactions to occur over much shorter distances than do fibers. The nonlinear interactions are further enhanced in resonators. Both theory and experiment of enhanced four-wave mixing in micro-ring resonators are presented that can be used for many applications. A conversion efficiency of 14% achievable with only 10-mW peak pump power is predicted under realizable conditions. The experiment, the first one to the authors’ knowledge in nonlinear optics performed in microrings, shows, even in a lossy GaAs/AlGaAs ring, a 26-dB improvement in the conversion efficiency compared with that of an equivalent straight waveguide, in agreement with theory.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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1999 (1)

1998 (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Hans, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. I. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

G. F. Levy, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1803 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher-order response in coupled microring resonators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).

Aitchison, J. S.

Boyd, R. W.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Hans, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Darwish, A. M.

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. I. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deri, R. J.

R. J. Deri and M. A. Emanuel, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, J. P.

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. I. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Emanuel, M. A.

R. J. Deri and M. A. Emanuel, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Hans, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Hans, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Groves, S. I.

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. I. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

Hans, H. A.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Hans, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J. E.

Ho, P.-T.

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher-order response in coupled microring resonators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Ho, S. T.

Hobson, W. S.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher-order response in coupled microring resonators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Hutchings, D. C.

Ippen, E. P.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Hans, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. I. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Joneckis, L. G.

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher-order response in coupled microring resonators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Kennedy, G. T.

Kimerling, L. C.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Hans, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Le, H. Q.

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. I. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Levy, G. F.

G. F. Levy, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1803 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Hans, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher-order response in coupled microring resonators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Rafizadeh, D.

Sibbett, W.

Slusher, R. E.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soccolich, C. E.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stair, K. A.

Steinmeyer, G.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Hans, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

Thoen, E. R.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Hans, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tiberio, R. C.

Wherrett, B. S.

Wilson, R. A.

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher-order response in coupled microring resonators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Young, M. G.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. I. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. J. Deri and M. A. Emanuel, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. F. Levy, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1803 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Hans, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher-order response in coupled microring resonators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Optical Waveguide Mode Solver Suite, V. 1.2. (Apollo Photonics, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, 1998).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ring resonator for FWM: top and cross-sectional views.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength alignment with respect to the FE factor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Conversion efficiency (solid curve) and resonance shift over the resonance linewidth (dotted curve) as a function of the wavelength detuning between the pump and the signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical micrograph of a racetrack-shaped resonator with defined ports.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical spectra for on-resonance (solid curve) and off-resonance (dotted curve) cases.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ep,s,c,coupled=-jσEp,s,c,in+τEp,s,c,return, Ep,s,c,out=τEp,s,c,in-jσEp,s,c,return,
Epz=-αp2Ep,  Esz=-αs2Es, Ecz=-αc2Ec+jγEp2Es* expjΔkz,
γ=n2ωcAeffc,  Δk=2kp-ks-kc.
η=γPpL2FEp4FEs2FEc2,
L2=L2 exp-αL1-exp-αL+jΔkLαL-jΔkL2, FEi=σ1-τexp-αL/2+jkiL.
ηresonatorηstraight=LresonatorLstraight2FE8.

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