Abstract

We developed a heterodyne interference confocal microscope, using wavelength modulation of a laser diode to realize quick separate measurement of the refractive indices and geometrical thicknesses of multiple layers. This microscope requires only a single axial movement of the specimen. We can display the geometrical cross sections of the interfaces and the refractive indices of a three-layered object.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, New York, 1990).
  2. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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1999 (1)

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinn, S. R.

Dalhoff, E.

Fercher, A. F.

Fischer, E.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 340 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukano, T.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haruna, M.

M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, and M. Haruna, Opt. Rev. 4, 507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heim, S.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofbauerr, U.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwata, K.

Kikuta, H.

Kulhavy, M.

Lexer, F.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagata, R.

Ohmi, M.

M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, and M. Haruna, Opt. Rev. 4, 507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiraishi, T.

M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, and M. Haruna, Opt. Rev. 4, 507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 340 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajiri, H.

M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, and M. Haruna, Opt. Rev. 4, 507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H.

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, New York, 1990).

Yamaguchi, I.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, and M. Haruna, Opt. Rev. 4, 507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, New York, 1990).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for nd separation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FM-demodulator output versus mirror displacement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross section of a wedged sample. The thickness and the refractive index of each glass sheet are approximately 1100 µm and 1.52, respectively. (b) Optical cross section obtained from the confocal microscope. (c) Reconstructed geometrical cross section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Confocal signal and (b) FM-demodulator output obtained from sample scanning at the point indicated by the arrow in Fig. 3(a).

Equations (2)

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n2=12NA2+NA4+41-NA21+ΔlΔz21/2,
d=Δl+Δz/n,

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