Abstract

Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful in imaging microscopic structures through highly scattering media. Because spatially coherent light is used in OCT, speckle in the reconstructed image is unavoidable, resulting in degradation of the quality of the OCT images and impaired ability to differentiate subsurface structures. Therefore speckle reduction is an important issue in OCT imaging. We develop speckle statistics that are appropriate to the OCT measurements and demonstrate a simple and practical speckle-reduction technique.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Kamensky, F. Feldchtein, V. Gelikonov, L. Snopova, S. Muraviov, A. Malyshev, N. Bityurin, and A. Sergeev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 137 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Express 2, 22 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/4710.pdf ).
  3. A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 38, 2116 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1484 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 14 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/5873.pdf ).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. Lewis, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 22, 61 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, Proc. SPIE 3196, 79 (1997); J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chaps. 2–4.

1999

A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 38, 2116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1484 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Kamensky, F. Feldchtein, V. Gelikonov, L. Snopova, S. Muraviov, A. Malyshev, N. Bityurin, and A. Sergeev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Express 2, 22 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/4710.pdf ).

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 14 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/5873.pdf ).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. Lewis, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 22, 61 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, Proc. SPIE 3196, 79 (1997); J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashkansky, M.

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Express 2, 22 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/4710.pdf ).

M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. Lewis, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 22, 61 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bityurin, N.

V. Kamensky, F. Feldchtein, V. Gelikonov, L. Snopova, S. Muraviov, A. Malyshev, N. Bityurin, and A. Sergeev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, M. D.

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Express 2, 22 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/4710.pdf ).

M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. Lewis, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 22, 61 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldchtein, F.

V. Kamensky, F. Feldchtein, V. Gelikonov, L. Snopova, S. Muraviov, A. Malyshev, N. Bityurin, and A. Sergeev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, V.

V. Kamensky, F. Feldchtein, V. Gelikonov, L. Snopova, S. Muraviov, A. Malyshev, N. Bityurin, and A. Sergeev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chaps. 2–4.

Izatt, J. A.

A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1484 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 14 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/5873.pdf ).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

Kahn, M.

Kamensky, V.

V. Kamensky, F. Feldchtein, V. Gelikonov, L. Snopova, S. Muraviov, A. Malyshev, N. Bityurin, and A. Sergeev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 14 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/5873.pdf ).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, D.

Malyshev, A.

V. Kamensky, F. Feldchtein, V. Gelikonov, L. Snopova, S. Muraviov, A. Malyshev, N. Bityurin, and A. Sergeev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muraviov, S.

V. Kamensky, F. Feldchtein, V. Gelikonov, L. Snopova, S. Muraviov, A. Malyshev, N. Bityurin, and A. Sergeev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

Reintjes, J.

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Express 2, 22 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/4710.pdf ).

M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. Lewis, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 22, 61 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1484 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 14 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/5873.pdf ).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, Proc. SPIE 3196, 79 (1997); J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A.

V. Kamensky, F. Feldchtein, V. Gelikonov, L. Snopova, S. Muraviov, A. Malyshev, N. Bityurin, and A. Sergeev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snopova, L.

V. Kamensky, F. Feldchtein, V. Gelikonov, L. Snopova, S. Muraviov, A. Malyshev, N. Bityurin, and A. Sergeev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ung-arunyawee, R.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 14 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/5873.pdf ).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, Proc. SPIE 3196, 79 (1997); J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 14 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/5873.pdf ).
[CrossRef]

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, Proc. SPIE 3196, 79 (1997); J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

V. Kamensky, F. Feldchtein, V. Gelikonov, L. Snopova, S. Muraviov, A. Malyshev, N. Bityurin, and A. Sergeev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 14 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/5873.pdf ).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Express 2, 22 (1998) ( http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/pdf/4710.pdf ).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, Proc. SPIE 3196, 79 (1997); J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chaps. 2–4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the signal beam translation with a right-angle prism in a low-coherence fiber interferometer–based system used to detect subsurface defects in ceramics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three 2.5-mm by 2.5-mm OCT images of a Si3N4 sample taken at different incidence angles at a depth of 80 µm as measured in air.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average of 11 OCT scans such as those in the Fig. 2, taken at one angle of incidence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average of 11 OCT scans such as those in the Fig. 2, taken at different angles of incidence.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρI=1σexp-Iσ,
ρI=4Iσ2exp-2Iσ.
ρAT=12πσexp-AR-AT22σ2.
ρSOCT=12πκexp-SOCT22κ2,
ρSOCT=12κπexp-SOCT24κ2.

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