Abstract

We present a model with which to calculate the index increase induced in standard single-mode fiber by hydrogen loading. Also, we propose that the dominant products of reaction in UV-written hydrogenated standard communication fibers are GeE and Si-OH. Based on the above models, we calculate the Bragg wavelength shifts that are due to hydrogen diffusion out of the fiber gratings. The relative effective index change that is due to hydrogen dissolved in fiber can be as much as 6×10-4 if standard telecom fiber is hydrogen loaded with a concentration of 1.44 mol.%. Theoretical results agree with experimental results.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Lemaire, Opt. Eng. 30, 780 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. F. Shackelford, P. L. Stut, and R. M. Fulrath, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1619 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Weber, ed., CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. III, p. 206.
  6. I. H. Malitson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1205 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt. 34, 3436 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Pool, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. T. E. Tsai and E. J. Friebele, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper JMA4, pp. 101–103.
  13. T. E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 224 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. J. Morrow, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, in Optical Fiber Communication, T. Y. Li, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Vol. 1, p. 81.

1998

G. Tan, X. Z. Lin, H. D. Liu, and L. B. Fu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 15, 657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 224 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt. 34, 3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Pool, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. J. Lemaire, Opt. Eng. 30, 780 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1972

J. F. Shackelford, P. L. Stut, and R. M. Fulrath, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1619 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1965

Archambault, J. L.

Atkins, G. R.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Pool, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cochet, F.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cordier, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt. 34, 3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douay, M.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

T. E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 224 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Tsai and E. J. Friebele, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper JMA4, pp. 101–103.

Fu, L. B.

G. Tan, X. Z. Lin, H. D. Liu, and L. B. Fu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 15, 657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fulrath, R. M.

J. F. Shackelford, P. L. Stut, and R. M. Fulrath, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1619 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, M. D.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, S. L.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, Opt. Eng. 30, 780 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lidgard, A.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. Z.

G. Tan, X. Z. Lin, H. D. Liu, and L. B. Fu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 15, 657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. D.

G. Tan, X. Z. Lin, H. D. Liu, and L. B. Fu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 15, 657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malitson, I. H.

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morrow, A. J.

A. J. Morrow, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, in Optical Fiber Communication, T. Y. Li, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Vol. 1, p. 81.

Niay, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Poignant, H.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pool, S. B.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Pool, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

Russell, P. St. J.

Salathe, R. P.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sarkar, A.

A. J. Morrow, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, in Optical Fiber Communication, T. Y. Li, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Vol. 1, p. 81.

Sceats, M. G.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Pool, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, P. C.

A. J. Morrow, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, in Optical Fiber Communication, T. Y. Li, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Vol. 1, p. 81.

Shackelford, J. F.

J. F. Shackelford, P. L. Stut, and R. M. Fulrath, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1619 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Stut, P. L.

J. F. Shackelford, P. L. Stut, and R. M. Fulrath, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1619 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Tan, G.

G. Tan, X. Z. Lin, H. D. Liu, and L. B. Fu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 15, 657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taunacy, T.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T. E.

T. E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 224 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Tsai and E. J. Friebele, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper JMA4, pp. 101–103.

Williams, G. M.

Xie, W. X.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Pool, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

G. Tan, X. Z. Lin, H. D. Liu, and L. B. Fu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 15, 657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Shackelford, P. L. Stut, and R. M. Fulrath, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1619 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunacy, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Eng.

P. J. Lemaire, Opt. Eng. 30, 780 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

A. J. Morrow, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, in Optical Fiber Communication, T. Y. Li, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Vol. 1, p. 81.

T. E. Tsai and E. J. Friebele, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper JMA4, pp. 101–103.

M. J. Weber, ed., CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. III, p. 206.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bragg wavelength shifts caused by H2 outdiffusion (strong fiber grating).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bragg wavelength shifts caused by H2 outdiffusion (weak fiber grating).

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nH2=1+CC1H2n1H2-1,
n=1+χrSiO2+χrH21/2=1+nSiO22-1+nH22-11/2.
δneff=ηΔn=0.693ηnH2-1,
H2 UV 2H
GeO-Si+H UV Ge+HOSi.
Ct=D2C,
Cr,t=2μ=11ξμJ12ξμC0-C1abJ1ξμab+C1J1ξμJ1ξμrbexp-ξμ2Dtb2,
ΔαH21.24=AH21.24NH2, ΔαOH1.39=BOH1.39NOH;
AH21.2410.43×10-7 dB/cm parts in 106-1.

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