Abstract

Mass-transport smoothing has been used to reduce the surface roughness of a gallium phosphide (GaP) microlens from 50.0 nm (rms) to 6.5 nm (rms) while preserving the original surface figure. The initial GaP surface was fabricated by dry-etch transfer of a polymer microlens into a GaP substrate. This result demonstrates that mass transport can significantly improve the performance of economically feasible high-refractive-index micro-optical elements having arbitrary surface profiles.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. L. Liau and H. J. Zeiger, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2434 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 97 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Swenson, R. A. Fields, and M. H. Abraham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1304 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Nikolajeff, T. A. Ballen, J. R. Leger, A. Gopinath, T.-C. Lee, and R. C. Williams, Appl. Opt. 38, 3030 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. A. Ballen and J. R. Leger, Appl. Opt. 38, 2979 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, and R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. T. Gale, in Micro-optics: Elements, Systems and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 153–177.
  9. E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, and E. L. Hu, Microelectron. Eng. 35, 385 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. L. Liau and R. C. Williamson, “Curved surfaces formed by etching and thermal processing,” U.S. patent5,807,622 (September15, 1998).
  11. Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, and D. L. Hovey, (1994).

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, and E. L. Hu, Microelectron. Eng. 35, 385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. S. Swenson, R. A. Fields, and M. H. Abraham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, and R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Z. L. Liau and H. J. Zeiger, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2434 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 97 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, M. H.

J. S. Swenson, R. A. Fields, and M. H. Abraham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ballen, T. A.

Coldren, L. A.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, and E. L. Hu, Microelectron. Eng. 35, 385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, C. L.

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, and R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Diadiuk, V.

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 97 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

J. S. Swenson, R. A. Fields, and M. H. Abraham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, in Micro-optics: Elements, Systems and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 153–177.

Gopinath, A.

Hovey, D. L.

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, and D. L. Hovey, (1994).

Hu, E. L.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, and E. L. Hu, Microelectron. Eng. 35, 385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-C.

Leger, J. R.

Liau, Z. L.

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, and R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau and H. J. Zeiger, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2434 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 97 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau and R. C. Williamson, “Curved surfaces formed by etching and thermal processing,” U.S. patent5,807,622 (September15, 1998).

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, and D. L. Hovey, (1994).

Mull, D. E.

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, and R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 97 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, and D. L. Hovey, (1994).

Nikolajeff, F.

Robinson, G. D.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, and E. L. Hu, Microelectron. Eng. 35, 385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strzelecka, E. M.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, and E. L. Hu, Microelectron. Eng. 35, 385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, J. S.

J. S. Swenson, R. A. Fields, and M. H. Abraham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walpole, J. N.

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 97 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. C.

Williamson, R. C.

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, and R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau and R. C. Williamson, “Curved surfaces formed by etching and thermal processing,” U.S. patent5,807,622 (September15, 1998).

Zeiger, H. J.

Z. L. Liau and H. J. Zeiger, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2434 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 97 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Swenson, R. A. Fields, and M. H. Abraham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, and D. E. Mull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, and R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. L. Liau and H. J. Zeiger, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2434 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, and E. L. Hu, Microelectron. Eng. 35, 385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Z. L. Liau and R. C. Williamson, “Curved surfaces formed by etching and thermal processing,” U.S. patent5,807,622 (September15, 1998).

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, and D. L. Hovey, (1994).

M. T. Gale, in Micro-optics: Elements, Systems and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 153–177.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning-electron microscope image of a GaP microlens (a) before and (b) after mass transport.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM image of a GaP microlens (a) before and (b) after mass transport.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reduction of surface roughness: deviation of the surface from a parabola (dotted curve) before and (solid curve) after simulated mass transport for 28 h.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Preservation of surface figure: deviation of the surface from a parabola following simulated mass transport for 1, 10, and 28 h.

Equations (2)

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zx,t=n=0Antcos2nπxΛ,
Ant=A0 exp-t/τn,

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