Abstract

We have fabricated electrically switchable holographic gratings, using Polaroid Corporation’s DMP-128 photopolymer filled with the nematic liquid crystal E7. It is shown that a coupled-wave theory that includes the effects of the birefringence of the liquid crystal must be used to explain the diffraction properties of these anisotropic volume gratings. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of theory and experiment provides information about the alignment of the liquid crystal within the polymer host.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. H. Whitney and R. T. Ingwall, Proc. SPIE 1213, 18 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. T. Ingwall and M. Troll, Opt. Eng. 28, 586 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 2689, 158 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. W. Stone, J. C. Kralik, and M. S. Malcuit, Proc. SPIE 3463, 86 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Stone, J. C. Kralik, and M. S. Malcuit, Proc. SPIE 3463, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 2689, 158 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

D. H. Whitney and R. T. Ingwall, Proc. SPIE 1213, 18 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. T. Ingwall and M. Troll, Opt. Eng. 28, 586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 2689, 158 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ingwall, R. T.

D. H. Whitney and R. T. Ingwall, Proc. SPIE 1213, 18 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Ingwall and M. Troll, Opt. Eng. 28, 586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kralik, J. C.

T. W. Stone, J. C. Kralik, and M. S. Malcuit, Proc. SPIE 3463, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malcuit, M. S.

T. W. Stone, J. C. Kralik, and M. S. Malcuit, Proc. SPIE 3463, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 2689, 158 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stone, T. W.

T. W. Stone, J. C. Kralik, and M. S. Malcuit, Proc. SPIE 3463, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 2689, 158 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 2689, 158 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Troll, M.

R. T. Ingwall and M. Troll, Opt. Eng. 28, 586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, D. H.

D. H. Whitney and R. T. Ingwall, Proc. SPIE 1213, 18 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. T. Ingwall and M. Troll, Opt. Eng. 28, 586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

D. H. Whitney and R. T. Ingwall, Proc. SPIE 1213, 18 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 2689, 158 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Stone, J. C. Kralik, and M. S. Malcuit, Proc. SPIE 3463, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and V. P. Tondiglia, Proc. SPIE 3292, 44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Angular spectra of a DMP-128 volume hologram filled with E7 nematic liquid crystal for p-polarized light. The theoretical calculation (solid curve) was obtained by use of Kogelnik’s theory, assuming that the liquid crystal orients along the grating vector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized diffraction efficiency plotted as a function of Bragg angle within the prism. The filled circles are experimental data points, the dashed curve is a theoretical calculation obtained with Kogelnik’s theory, assuming that the liquid crystal orients along the grating vector, and the solid curve is a theoretical calculation obtained with two-wave anisotropic grating theory assuming that 0x=2.56, 0z=2.56, 1x=0.22, and 1z=0.07.

Equations (4)

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na,b=fa,bnf+1-fa,bnDMP,
η=sin2πdλ0 cos θeˆ0·1·eˆ12n0 cos δ,
0=xx0000yy0000zz0
1=xx1000yy1000zz1.

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