Abstract

A new optical sensor that uses local plasmon resonance is proposed. A peak that is due to the local plasmon resonance appears in the absorption spectrum of a gold colloid suspension in the visible region, and its height and wavelength depend on the refractive index of the suspension. These properties are used for optical sensors. We used gold colloid monolayers in which colloidal gold particles a few tens of nanometers in diameter were immobilized upon a glass slide by a functional organic coupling agent. We measured the absorption spectra of the the gold colloid monolayers, which were immersed in liquid samples or coated with thin films. We observed increases of both the resonance wavelength and the absorbance as the refractive indices of the sample liquids or the thickness of the coated films increased. The proportional constants of the resonance wavelength to the film thickness were 3.6 and 5.7 for a 13.9- and a 20.2-nm gold colloid monolayer, respectively.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. S. Yee, ed., special issues on surface plasmon resonance optical sensors, current technology and applications, Sens. Actuators B 54(1–2)(1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Schmid, St. Peschel, and Th. Sawitowski, Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 623, 719 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Sato, D. G. Hasko, and H. Ahmed, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 45 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Frens, Nature Phys. Sci. 241, 20 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1999

S. S. Yee, ed., special issues on surface plasmon resonance optical sensors, current technology and applications, Sens. Actuators B 54(1–2)(1999).

1997

G. Schmid, St. Peschel, and Th. Sawitowski, Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 623, 719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Sato, D. G. Hasko, and H. Ahmed, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Doron, E. Katz, and I. Willner, Langmuir 11, 1313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

G. Frens, Nature Phys. Sci. 241, 20 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, H.

T. Sato, D. G. Hasko, and H. Ahmed, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Allison, K. J.

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bright, R. M.

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. A.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doron, A.

A. Doron, E. Katz, and I. Willner, Langmuir 11, 1313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. G.

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frens, G.

G. Frens, Nature Phys. Sci. 241, 20 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Grabar, K. C.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guthrie, A. P.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasko, D. G.

T. Sato, D. G. Hasko, and H. Ahmed, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hommer, M. B.

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, M. A.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, E.

A. Doron, E. Katz, and I. Willner, Langmuir 11, 1313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Musick, M. D.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Natan, M. J.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peschel, St.

G. Schmid, St. Peschel, and Th. Sawitowski, Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 623, 719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Sato, T.

T. Sato, D. G. Hasko, and H. Ahmed, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sawitowski, Th.

G. Schmid, St. Peschel, and Th. Sawitowski, Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 623, 719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, G.

G. Schmid, St. Peschel, and Th. Sawitowski, Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 623, 719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. C.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, D. G.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willner, I.

A. Doron, E. Katz, and I. Willner, Langmuir 11, 1313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

T. Sato, D. G. Hasko, and H. Ahmed, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

A. Doron, E. Katz, and I. Willner, Langmuir 11, 1313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phys. Sci.

G. Frens, Nature Phys. Sci. 241, 20 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. G. Freeman, K. C. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, Science 267, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B

S. S. Yee, ed., special issues on surface plasmon resonance optical sensors, current technology and applications, Sens. Actuators B 54(1–2)(1999).

Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.

G. Schmid, St. Peschel, and Th. Sawitowski, Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 623, 719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning-electron micrograph of a 20.2-nm gold colloid monolayer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic configurations for absorption measurements of (a) a liquid sample and (b) a coated film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured absorption spectra of a 20.2-nm gold colloid monolayer immersed in liquid samples of various refractive indices.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured absorption spectra of a 13.9-nm gold colloid monolayer coated by PMMA films of various thicknesses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak absorbance and resonance wavelength as a function of the thickness of the coated PMMA film for a 13.9- and a 20.2-nm gold colloid monolayer. Solid and dashed curves show the fitted single exponential functions.

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