Abstract

The wavelength dependence of the one-photon absorption–induced photodegradation rate has been measured from the visible to the near IR for a variety of electro-optic chromophore-doped polymers. Systematic behavior is identified. The lifetime of the electro-optic activity is found to increase exponentially over 4–6 orders of magnitude for wavelengths ranging from peak of absorption, typically in the visible, to 1000 nm. Many popular chromophores developed for electro-optics over the past 10 years are compared.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

For example, D. H. Choi, J. H. Park, N. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, M. Canva, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Y. Shi, W. Wang, W. Lin, D. J. Olson, and J. H. Bechtel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

For example, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Pretre, E. Sidlick, A. Knoesen, D. J. Dyer, and R. J. Twieg, ACS Symp. Ser. 695, 328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Synth. Metals 81, 305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Opt. 35, 3193 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. A. Mortazavi, H. N. Yoon, and C. C. Teng, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4871 (1993); M. A. Mortazavi, H. N. Yoon, and I. McCulloch, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 198 (1994); R. A. Norwood, D. R. Holcomb, and F. F. So, J. Nonlin. Opt. 6, 193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, W. Lin, D. J. Olson, and J. H. Bechtel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J.-P.

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Opt. 35, 3193 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Synth. Metals 81, 305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Opt. 35, 3193 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Synth. Metals 81, 305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Canva, M.

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, C. Kowalczyk, H. S. Lackritz, and K. P. Pong, Opt. Lett. 24, 1741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, M. Canva, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Synth. Metals 81, 305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Opt. 35, 3193 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cha, M.

M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chaput, F.

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Opt. 35, 3193 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Synth. Metals 81, 305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. H.

For example, D. H. Choi, J. H. Park, N. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M.

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, A.

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Synth. Metals 81, 305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Opt. 35, 3193 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyer, D. J.

Ph. Pretre, E. Sidlick, A. Knoesen, D. J. Dyer, and R. J. Twieg, ACS Symp. Ser. 695, 328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flipse, M.

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Galvan-Gonzalez, A.

Garner, S.

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

For example, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horsthuis, W. H. G.

M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, M.

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kalluri, S.

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N.

For example, D. H. Choi, J. H. Park, N. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knoesen, A.

Ph. Pretre, E. Sidlick, A. Knoesen, D. J. Dyer, and R. J. Twieg, ACS Symp. Ser. 695, 328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, C.

Kowalczyk, T. C.

T. C. Kowalczyk, R. J. Twieg, and H. S. Lackritz, presented at the Fourth International Conference on Organic Nonlinear Optics, October 12–14, 1998, Chitose, Japan.

Lackritz, H. S.

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, C. Kowalczyk, H. S. Lackritz, and K. P. Pong, Opt. Lett. 24, 1741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Kowalczyk, R. J. Twieg, and H. S. Lackritz, presented at the Fourth International Conference on Organic Nonlinear Optics, October 12–14, 1998, Chitose, Japan.

Lee, S.-D.

For example, D. H. Choi, J. H. Park, N. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, W. Lin, D. J. Olson, and J. H. Bechtel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

For example, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, M. A.

M. A. Mortazavi, H. N. Yoon, and C. C. Teng, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4871 (1993); M. A. Mortazavi, H. N. Yoon, and I. McCulloch, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 198 (1994); R. A. Norwood, D. R. Holcomb, and F. F. So, J. Nonlin. Opt. 6, 193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

Olson, D. J.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, W. Lin, D. J. Olson, and J. H. Bechtel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Otomo, A.

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

For example, D. H. Choi, J. H. Park, N. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pong, K. P.

Pretre, Ph.

Ph. Pretre, E. Sidlick, A. Knoesen, D. J. Dyer, and R. J. Twieg, ACS Symp. Ser. 695, 328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, W. Lin, D. J. Olson, and J. H. Bechtel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sidlick, E.

Ph. Pretre, E. Sidlick, A. Knoesen, D. J. Dyer, and R. J. Twieg, ACS Symp. Ser. 695, 328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, C. Kowalczyk, H. S. Lackritz, and K. P. Pong, Opt. Lett. 24, 1741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, M. Canva, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teng, C. C.

M. A. Mortazavi, H. N. Yoon, and C. C. Teng, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4871 (1993); M. A. Mortazavi, H. N. Yoon, and I. McCulloch, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 198 (1994); R. A. Norwood, D. R. Holcomb, and F. F. So, J. Nonlin. Opt. 6, 193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, C. L.

For example, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

Tomova, N.

Torruellas, W. E.

M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R.

Twieg, R. J.

For example, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Pretre, E. Sidlick, A. Knoesen, D. J. Dyer, and R. J. Twieg, ACS Symp. Ser. 695, 328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Kowalczyk, R. J. Twieg, and H. S. Lackritz, presented at the Fourth International Conference on Organic Nonlinear Optics, October 12–14, 1998, Chitose, Japan.

Wang, W.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, W. Lin, D. J. Olson, and J. H. Bechtel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H. N.

M. A. Mortazavi, H. N. Yoon, and C. C. Teng, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4871 (1993); M. A. Mortazavi, H. N. Yoon, and I. McCulloch, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 198 (1994); R. A. Norwood, D. R. Holcomb, and F. F. So, J. Nonlin. Opt. 6, 193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, M. Canva, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

ACS Symp. Ser. (1)

Ph. Pretre, E. Sidlick, A. Knoesen, D. J. Dyer, and R. J. Twieg, ACS Symp. Ser. 695, 328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

For example, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. Wang, W. Lin, D. J. Olson, and J. H. Bechtel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, M. Canva, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

For example, D. H. Choi, J. H. Park, N. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

For example, Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. A. Mortazavi, H. N. Yoon, and C. C. Teng, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4871 (1993); M. A. Mortazavi, H. N. Yoon, and I. McCulloch, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 198 (1994); R. A. Norwood, D. R. Holcomb, and F. F. So, J. Nonlin. Opt. 6, 193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Synth. Metals (1)

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, Synth. Metals 81, 305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. C. Kowalczyk, R. J. Twieg, and H. S. Lackritz, presented at the Fourth International Conference on Organic Nonlinear Optics, October 12–14, 1998, Chitose, Japan.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LogB/σ versus photon energy, Ephoton=hνpump, for a representative range of materials listed in Table 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

α-1 of DANS, measured as film transmission in the visible and as waveguide propagation loss in the IR. The experimental data are fitted by use of a Voigt profile. Absorption for λ>1000 nm shows maxima owing to vibrational overtones.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photostability parameter B as a function of excitation photon energy, Ephoton=hνpump, for the SCP’s DANS and DR1 and the guest–host cases indicated by the various types of points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Values of D0 and E0 for the polymers listed for Fig. 3.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Molecular Structures Studied at CREOL of Chromophores as Guests in Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Host B Values in the Plateau Region, Location of λmax, and Symbols Used for Each in Figs. 14a

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B/σ=D0 exp-hν/E0,

Metrics