Abstract

We report a large increase in photosensitivity of germanium-doped silicate fibers by rapid heat treatment of hydrogen-loaded fibers at 1000 °C before exposure of the fibers to 242-nm radiation. The increase in photosensitivity is compared with thermally induced absorption caused by introduction of massive amounts of hydroxyl species. The absorption loss was measured to be 0.02 dB/cm mol. % OH at 1.55 µm. Strong gratings Δn>1×10-4 in germanium-free phosphorous-doped fibers in the presence of 242-nm radiation have also been manufactured by this technique.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1999

1997

A. Asseh, H. Storøy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 18, 953 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and E. A. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, Proc. SPIE 1516, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2713 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1987

J. Stone, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 712 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and E. A. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Asseh, A.

A. Asseh, H. Storøy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Awazu, K.

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2713 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

Brambilla, G.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and E. A. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Fokine, M.

M. Fokine, B. Sahlgren, and R. Stubbe, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 58–60.

Glenn, W. H.

Grubsky, V.

Hill, K. O.

Johnson, D. C.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 2.

Kawazoe, H.

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2713 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kohnke, G. E.

G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. PD20–PD21.

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

Meltz, G.

Mizrahi, V.

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and E. A. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

Nightingale, D. W.

G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. PD20–PD21.

Payne, D. N.

Pollock, C. R.

G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. PD20–PD21.

Pruneri, V.

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

Sahlgren, B.

M. Fokine, B. Sahlgren, and R. Stubbe, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 58–60.

Sahlgren, B. E.

A. Asseh, H. Storøy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sandgren, S.

A. Asseh, H. Storøy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

Stone, J.

J. Stone, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 712 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Storøy, H.

A. Asseh, H. Storøy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stubbe, R.

M. Fokine, B. Sahlgren, and R. Stubbe, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 58–60.

Stubbe, R. A. H.

A. Asseh, H. Storøy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

White, E. A.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and E. A. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wigley, P. G.

G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. PD20–PD21.

Yamane, M.

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2713 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and E. A. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2713 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. Asseh, H. Storøy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 712 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, Proc. SPIE 1516, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. PD20–PD21.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 2.

M. Fokine, B. Sahlgren, and R. Stubbe, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 58–60.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, time evolution of the excess loss induced at 1.4 µm by OH flooding of a piece of H2-loaded fiber. Right, static measurement of induced loss in the 1.5µm window after a 1-s heating treatment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of optical signals reflected by Bragg gratings written in OH-flooded fibers (heated at 1000 °C for 1, 4, and 23 s) and a H2-loaded fiber. The writing conditions were similar in all cases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left, UV-induced and right, heat-induced refractive-index change as a function of absorption at 1.4 µm. The open circle on the y axis (left) corresponds to the H2-loaded fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

UV-induced index changes in an OH-flooded fiber and in an H2-loaded fiber. The photosensitivity increases dramatically with the creation of OH.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time evolution of UV-induced index changes in OH-flooded fibers (1000 °C, 1 and 4 s) and in H2-loaded fiber for long exposure times. The solid curves are fits to the power law ΔnAtγ.

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