Abstract

We present a new method of superresolving pupil-plane filter design in confocal microscopy in which we specify the properties of the desired point-spread function and use an optimization procedure to determine a suitable pupil-plane filter. A new, flexible method of filter implementation using reconfigurable binary optical elements is described, and experimental results are presented.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).
  2. T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).
  3. Z. Hegedus, Opt. Acta 32, 815 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Hegedus and V. Sarafis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1892 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Wilson and S. J. Hewlett, Opt. Lett. 16, 1062 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andres, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 165, 267 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Seldowitz, J. P. Allebach, and D. W. Sweeney, Appl. Opt. 26, 2788 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Y. Chen, N. Mayhew, E. G. S. Paige, and G. G. Yang, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 95 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 23, 1841 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. A. Neil, T. Wilson, and R. Juškaitis, “A wavefront generator for complex pupil function synthesis and point spread function engineering,” J. Microsc. (to be published).
  11. M. Kowalczyk, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Martinez-Corral, Appl. Opt. 37, 8206 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1999

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andres, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 165, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

H. Y. Chen, N. Mayhew, E. G. S. Paige, and G. G. Yang, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 95 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

1987

1986

1985

Z. Hegedus, Opt. Acta 32, 815 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Allebach, J. P.

Andres, P.

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andres, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 165, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Booth, M. J.

M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 23, 1841 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

H. Y. Chen, N. Mayhew, E. G. S. Paige, and G. G. Yang, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 95 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hegedus, Z.

Hewlett, S. J.

Juškaitis, R.

M. A. A. Neil, T. Wilson, and R. Juškaitis, “A wavefront generator for complex pupil function synthesis and point spread function engineering,” J. Microsc. (to be published).

Kowalczyk, M.

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andres, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 165, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kowalczyk, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Martinez-Corral, Appl. Opt. 37, 8206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Corral, M.

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andres, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 165, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kowalczyk, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Martinez-Corral, Appl. Opt. 37, 8206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mayhew, N.

H. Y. Chen, N. Mayhew, E. G. S. Paige, and G. G. Yang, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 95 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neil, M. A. A.

M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 23, 1841 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. A. Neil, T. Wilson, and R. Juškaitis, “A wavefront generator for complex pupil function synthesis and point spread function engineering,” J. Microsc. (to be published).

Paige, E. G. S.

H. Y. Chen, N. Mayhew, E. G. S. Paige, and G. G. Yang, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 95 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sarafis, V.

Seldowitz, M. A.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Sweeney, D. W.

Wilson, T.

M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 23, 1841 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson and S. J. Hewlett, Opt. Lett. 16, 1062 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

M. A. A. Neil, T. Wilson, and R. Juškaitis, “A wavefront generator for complex pupil function synthesis and point spread function engineering,” J. Microsc. (to be published).

Yang, G. G.

H. Y. Chen, N. Mayhew, E. G. S. Paige, and G. G. Yang, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 95 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zapata-Rodriguez, C. J.

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andres, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 165, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kowalczyk, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Martinez-Corral, Appl. Opt. 37, 8206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Microsc.

M. A. A. Neil, T. Wilson, and R. Juškaitis, “A wavefront generator for complex pupil function synthesis and point spread function engineering,” J. Microsc. (to be published).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Microelectron. Eng.

H. Y. Chen, N. Mayhew, E. G. S. Paige, and G. G. Yang, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 95 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

Z. Hegedus, Opt. Acta 32, 815 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andres, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 165, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

T. Wilson and S. J. Hewlett, Opt. Lett. 16, 1062 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 23, 1841 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical system of the confocal microscope, together with the system used to create the pupil-plane filter. SLM, spatial light modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pupil-plane phase distribution (left-hand column) together with experimental xz sections (right-hand column) of the corresponding confocal intensity point-spread functions for the filters described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Axial (left-hand side) and lateral (right-hand side) sections through the experimental point-spread functions of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of optimizing for both illumination and detection pupil functions to achieve a reduction in the lateral and the axial half-widths to 80% of the unapodized case: (a) pupil-plane phase filter, Pi=Pd*. Also shown are 10% and 50% isosurfaces for the (b) apodized and (c) unapodized intensity point-spread functions.

Equations (2)

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It,w,u=hit,w,uhdt,w,u2,
hi,dt,w,u=PPi,dξ,ηexp-12juξ2+η2×exp-jξt+ηwdξdη,

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