Abstract

A novel poling method, carbon dioxide laser-assisted poling (CLAP), is demonstrated. Localized heating during CLAP is achieved through silicate absorption of the CO2 laser radiation. Electro-optic coefficients of 0.2 pm/V are achieved within a 55-s scan of a twin-hole fiber. It is shown that there is a range of CO2 laser powers for which the residual electro-optic coefficient is maximized.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. U. Österberg and W. Margulis, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WBB2, p. 102.
  2. V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 185 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. M. Fejer, G. M. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. B. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Izawa, N. Shibita, and A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Xu, M. Janos, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, in Third Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’98) Technical Digest (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998), paper 16C4-2, p. 516.
  8. D. Wong, W. Xu, J. Arentoft, and S. Fleming, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThG4, p. 90.
  9. E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, and M. V. Grekov, in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC ’98 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, p. 395.
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. M. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. B. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

T. Izawa, N. Shibita, and A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Arentoft, J.

D. Wong, W. Xu, J. Arentoft, and S. Fleming, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThG4, p. 90.

Bayon, J. F.

Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. B.

M. M. Fejer, G. M. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. B. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, and M. V. Grekov, in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC ’98 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, p. 395.
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. M. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. B. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, S.

D. Wong, W. Xu, J. Arentoft, and S. Fleming, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThG4, p. 90.

W. Xu, M. Janos, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, in Third Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’98) Technical Digest (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998), paper 16C4-2, p. 516.

Grekov, M. V.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, and M. V. Grekov, in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC ’98 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, p. 395.
[CrossRef]

Izawa, T.

T. Izawa, N. Shibita, and A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Janos, M.

W. Xu, M. Janos, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, in Third Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’98) Technical Digest (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998), paper 16C4-2, p. 516.

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. M. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. B. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Karpov, V. I.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, and M. V. Grekov, in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC ’98 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, p. 395.
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurkov, A. S.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, and M. V. Grekov, in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC ’98 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, p. 395.
[CrossRef]

Loisel, B.

Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Magel, G. A.

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Magel, G. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. M. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. B. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

U. Österberg and W. Margulis, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WBB2, p. 102.

Martinelli, G.

Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Österberg, U.

U. Österberg and W. Margulis, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WBB2, p. 102.

Poignant, H.

Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quiquempois, Y.

Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shibita, N.

T. Izawa, N. Shibita, and A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, A.

T. Izawa, N. Shibita, and A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wong, D.

W. Xu, M. Janos, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, in Third Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’98) Technical Digest (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998), paper 16C4-2, p. 516.

D. Wong, W. Xu, J. Arentoft, and S. Fleming, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThG4, p. 90.

Xu, W.

D. Wong, W. Xu, J. Arentoft, and S. Fleming, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThG4, p. 90.

W. Xu, M. Janos, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, in Third Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’98) Technical Digest (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998), paper 16C4-2, p. 516.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Izawa, N. Shibita, and A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. M. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. B. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Quiquempois, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, B. Loisel, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 9, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

U. Österberg and W. Margulis, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WBB2, p. 102.

W. Xu, M. Janos, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, in Third Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’98) Technical Digest (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998), paper 16C4-2, p. 516.

D. Wong, W. Xu, J. Arentoft, and S. Fleming, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThG4, p. 90.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, and M. V. Grekov, in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC ’98 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, p. 395.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bragg wavelength shift and corresponding temperature versus CO2 laser beam power.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Orientation of the twin-hole fiber with respect to the CO2 laser beam (not to scale).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the CLAP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Residual E-O coefficient achieved versus CO2 laser irradiance for a positive poling voltage of 3 kV.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of positive CLAP Vpoling=+3.5 kV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evolution of negative CLAP Vpoling=-3.5 kV.

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