Abstract

Computations with the rigorous differential method show that single gratings made by ion implantation have a diffraction efficiency in the +1 transmitted order under TE illumination of only 0.78%. The insertion of such gratings into multilayer dielectric Fabry–Perot cavities leads to an enhancement of the free-space diffraction efficiency. Different designs for the multilayer are considered. An 18.8% efficiency is reached with 11-layer mirrors. This result is obtained by optimization of the thickness of the spacer of the Fabry–Perot cavity that contains the grating and centering of the wavelength of the mirrors. The dependence of optical properties of the structure on the various optogeometrical parameters of the structure is discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Astilean, P. Lalanne, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, and H. Launois, Opt. Lett. 23, 552 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).
  3. F. Flory, T. Tisserand, L. Brassé, and L. Roux, presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., October 20–25, 1996.
  4. S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. N. Favennec, L’Implantation Ionique pour la Microélectronique et l’Optique (Masson, Paris, 1993).
  6. P. Vincent, in Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, R. Petit, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), p. 101.
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Lemarchand, A. Sentenac, and H. Giovannini, Opt. Lett. 23, 1149 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Nevière, D. Maystre, and P. Vincent, J. Opt. 8, 231 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. R. Flory, in Guided Waves Techniques for the Characterization of Optical Coatings in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. R. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), p. 393.
  10. F. Flory, G. Albrand, D. Endelema, N. Maythaveekulchai, E. Pelletier, and H. Rigneault, Opt. Eng. 33, 1669 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Moll, H. K. Puller, and W. Haag, “Method and apparatus for the reactive vapor deposition of layers of oxides, nitrides, oxynitrides, and carbides on a substrate,” U.S. patent application 4,619,748 filed October28, 1986.
  12. F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, and Y. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 3185, 110 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1997 (1)

F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, and Y. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 3185, 110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. Flory, G. Albrand, D. Endelema, N. Maythaveekulchai, E. Pelletier, and H. Rigneault, Opt. Eng. 33, 1669 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

M. Nevière, D. Maystre, and P. Vincent, J. Opt. 8, 231 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Adamik, M.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

F. Flory, G. Albrand, D. Endelema, N. Maythaveekulchai, E. Pelletier, and H. Rigneault, Opt. Eng. 33, 1669 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Astilean, S.

Brassé, L.

F. Flory, T. Tisserand, L. Brassé, and L. Roux, presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., October 20–25, 1996.

Cambril, E.

Chan, Y.-C.

F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, and Y. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 3185, 110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chavel, P.

Endelema, D.

F. Flory, G. Albrand, D. Endelema, N. Maythaveekulchai, E. Pelletier, and H. Rigneault, Opt. Eng. 33, 1669 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Favennec, P. N.

P. N. Favennec, L’Implantation Ionique pour la Microélectronique et l’Optique (Masson, Paris, 1993).

Flory, F.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Flory, G. Albrand, D. Endelema, N. Maythaveekulchai, E. Pelletier, and H. Rigneault, Opt. Eng. 33, 1669 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Flory, T. Tisserand, L. Brassé, and L. Roux, presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., October 20–25, 1996.

Flory, F. R.

F. R. Flory, in Guided Waves Techniques for the Characterization of Optical Coatings in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. R. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), p. 393.

Gatto, A.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, H.

Haag, W.

E. Moll, H. K. Puller, and W. Haag, “Method and apparatus for the reactive vapor deposition of layers of oxides, nitrides, oxynitrides, and carbides on a substrate,” U.S. patent application 4,619,748 filed October28, 1986.

Herzig, H. P.

H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).

Kovacs, I.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Lam, Y.-L.

F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, and Y. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 3185, 110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Launois, H.

Lemarchand, F.

Maystre, D.

M. Nevière, D. Maystre, and P. Vincent, J. Opt. 8, 231 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Maythaveekulchai, N.

F. Flory, G. Albrand, D. Endelema, N. Maythaveekulchai, E. Pelletier, and H. Rigneault, Opt. Eng. 33, 1669 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moll, E.

E. Moll, H. K. Puller, and W. Haag, “Method and apparatus for the reactive vapor deposition of layers of oxides, nitrides, oxynitrides, and carbides on a substrate,” U.S. patent application 4,619,748 filed October28, 1986.

Nevière, M.

M. Nevière, D. Maystre, and P. Vincent, J. Opt. 8, 231 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

F. Flory, G. Albrand, D. Endelema, N. Maythaveekulchai, E. Pelletier, and H. Rigneault, Opt. Eng. 33, 1669 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Puller, H. K.

E. Moll, H. K. Puller, and W. Haag, “Method and apparatus for the reactive vapor deposition of layers of oxides, nitrides, oxynitrides, and carbides on a substrate,” U.S. patent application 4,619,748 filed October28, 1986.

Rigneault, H.

F. Flory, G. Albrand, D. Endelema, N. Maythaveekulchai, E. Pelletier, and H. Rigneault, Opt. Eng. 33, 1669 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roux, L.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Flory, T. Tisserand, L. Brassé, and L. Roux, presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., October 20–25, 1996.

Sentenac, A.

Tisserand, S.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tisserand, T.

F. Flory, T. Tisserand, L. Brassé, and L. Roux, presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., October 20–25, 1996.

Vincent, P.

M. Nevière, D. Maystre, and P. Vincent, J. Opt. 8, 231 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Vincent, in Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, R. Petit, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), p. 101.
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.-L.

F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, and Y. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 3185, 110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, and Y. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 3185, 110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

M. Nevière, D. Maystre, and P. Vincent, J. Opt. 8, 231 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Flory, G. Albrand, D. Endelema, N. Maythaveekulchai, E. Pelletier, and H. Rigneault, Opt. Eng. 33, 1669 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, and Y. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 3185, 110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

E. Moll, H. K. Puller, and W. Haag, “Method and apparatus for the reactive vapor deposition of layers of oxides, nitrides, oxynitrides, and carbides on a substrate,” U.S. patent application 4,619,748 filed October28, 1986.

F. R. Flory, in Guided Waves Techniques for the Characterization of Optical Coatings in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. R. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), p. 393.

P. N. Favennec, L’Implantation Ionique pour la Microélectronique et l’Optique (Masson, Paris, 1993).

P. Vincent, in Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, R. Petit, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), p. 101.
[CrossRef]

H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).

F. Flory, T. Tisserand, L. Brassé, and L. Roux, presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., October 20–25, 1996.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

In-depth index profile of a titanium implanted silica layer4: Nmax, maximal refractive index; σ, half-width of the implanted zone; m, depth of the maximal refractive-index value.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grating embedded in a resonant Fabry–Perot cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maximal diffraction efficiency of the +1 TE transmitted order versus the number of dielectric layers p of the mirrors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Efficiency versus the period of the grating dx.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optogeometrical Parameters

Metrics