Abstract

The frequency-domain mode comb of a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser centered at 350 THz is broadened to 150 THz (full width at -30 dBc) by self-phase modulation in a single-mode optical fiber. By phase locking continuous-wave lasers to elements of the comb near 1064 and 778 nm, we measure the 104-THz frequency gap between these two lasers with a relative uncertainty of 2.7×10-11 in 1 s.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, and D. J. E. Knight, Proc. IEEE 74, 168 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Managing the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).
  4. J. L. Hall, M. S. Taubman, S. A. Diddams, B. Tiemann, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, D. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, “Stabilizing and measuring optical frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, to be published).
  5. M. T. Asaki, C.-P. Huang, D. Garvey, J. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Opt. Lett. 18, 977 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Levine, in Proceedings of 1998 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 284–291.
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 24, 411 (1999); D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 24, 631 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (4)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 24, 411 (1999); D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 24, 631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999); Opt. Lett. 24, 881 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1986 (1)

D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, and D. J. E. Knight, Proc. IEEE 74, 168 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Acef, O.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Angelow, G.

Asaki, M. T.

Biraben, F.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cho, S. H.

Clairon, A.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

J. L. Hall, M. S. Taubman, S. A. Diddams, B. Tiemann, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, D. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, “Stabilizing and measuring optical frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, to be published).

de Beauvoir, B.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

J. L. Hall, M. S. Taubman, S. A. Diddams, B. Tiemann, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, D. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, “Stabilizing and measuring optical frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, to be published).

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Evenson, K. M.

D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, and D. J. E. Knight, Proc. IEEE 74, 168 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Felder, R.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Garvey, D.

Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, M. S. Taubman, S. A. Diddams, B. Tiemann, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, D. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, “Stabilizing and measuring optical frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, to be published).

Hänsch, T. W.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999); Opt. Lett. 24, 881 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Managing the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Haus, H. A.

Hilico, L.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999); Opt. Lett. 24, 881 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Managing the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Hong, F.-L.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-P.

Imai, K.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jennings, D. A.

D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, and D. J. E. Knight, Proc. IEEE 74, 168 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D.

J. L. Hall, M. S. Taubman, S. A. Diddams, B. Tiemann, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, D. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, “Stabilizing and measuring optical frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, to be published).

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knight, D. J. E.

D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, and D. J. E. Knight, Proc. IEEE 74, 168 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levine, J.

J. Levine, in Proceedings of 1998 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 284–291.
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, M. S. Taubman, S. A. Diddams, B. Tiemann, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, D. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, “Stabilizing and measuring optical frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, to be published).

Morgner, U.

Murnane, M. M.

Nez, F.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, O.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J.

Reichert, J.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999); Opt. Lett. 24, 881 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Managing the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Scheuer, V.

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. S.

J. L. Hall, M. S. Taubman, S. A. Diddams, B. Tiemann, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, D. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, “Stabilizing and measuring optical frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, to be published).

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tiemann, B.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, M. S. Taubman, S. A. Diddams, B. Tiemann, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, D. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, “Stabilizing and measuring optical frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, to be published).

Touahri, D.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

Udem, Th.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999); Opt. Lett. 24, 881 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Managing the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Windeler, R.

Ye, J.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, M. S. Taubman, S. A. Diddams, B. Tiemann, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, D. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, “Stabilizing and measuring optical frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, to be published).

Zhou, J.

Zondy, J.-J.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999); Opt. Lett. 24, 881 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, and D. J. E. Knight, Proc. IEEE 74, 168 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Managing the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

J. L. Hall, M. S. Taubman, S. A. Diddams, B. Tiemann, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, D. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, “Stabilizing and measuring optical frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, to be published).

J. Levine, in Proceedings of 1998 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 284–291.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the apparatus used for measurement of the 104-THz gap between 1064 and 778 nm. Osc’s, oscillators.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical spectrum directly from the laser (dashed curve) and after broadening in silica fiber (solid curve). The dashed arrows indicate the positions of the cw Ti:sapphire and the Nd:YAG lasers. (b) rf spectrum of the heterodyne signal at 1064 nm between cw Nd:YAG and four elements of the broadened fs comb. Resolution bandwidth, 100 kHz; sweep time, 150 ms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Summary of measured Nd:YAG frequency f1064 with respect to the CIPM recommendation of 281, 630, 111, 740 kHz. The dashed line is the average of all the plotted points (23.2 kHz). The inset is a histogram of the 800 individual measurements on and after the third day.

Equations (1)

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f1064=f778-nΔ±778 nm beat±1064 nm beat,

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