Abstract

A new concept for high-resolution ophthalmoscopy is presented. The method is an alternative to the use of adaptive optics. It is based in deconvolving a retinal image from simultaneously acquired multiple ocular wave-front aberration and aberration-distorted fundus images. A computer simulation of the procedure using actual ocular wave-front aberration data that shows the validity of the method is first presented. Experimental results obtained from an artificial eye serve both to probe the method in a situation similar to the real eye and to introduce the required preprocessing of the retinal images. Finally, results from a real human retina are presented, and the potential of the technique is discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
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  3. I. Iglesias, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 326 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Primot, G. Rousset, and J. C. Fontanella, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1598 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S365 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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2000

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 1388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S365 (1999).

1998

1997

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. Primot, G. Rousset, and J. C. Fontanella, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1598 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aragón, J. L.

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S365 (1999).

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A (to be published).

Artal, P.

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 1388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S365 (1999).

I. Iglesias, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Vargas-Martin, P. Prieto, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2552 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A (to be published).

Fontanella, J. C.

J. Primot, G. Rousset, and J. C. Fontanella, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1598 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Goelz, S.

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 1388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, H. J.

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S365 (1999).

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A (to be published).

Iglesias, I.

Liang, J.

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Gil, N.

Miller, D. T.

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, W. K.

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Prieto, P.

Prieto, P. M.

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 1388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Primot, J.

J. Primot, G. Rousset, and J. C. Fontanella, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1598 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

J. Primot, G. Rousset, and J. C. Fontanella, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1598 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Singer, B.

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A (to be published).

Vargas-Martin, F.

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 1388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Vargas-Martin, P. Prieto, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2552 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S365 (1999).

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A (to be published).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl.

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S365 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Primot, G. Rousset, and J. C. Fontanella, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1598 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am A

H. J. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A (to be published).

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 1388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Other

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Deconvolution of a simulated object (the letters LOUM) by use of real WA from a human eye: (a) Example of a PSF, (b) example of a distorted image, (c) and (d) results for 5 and 20 realizations, respectively. All images are 256×256 pixels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup: CCD1, CCD2, cooled CCD sensors (16  bits); HS, Hartmann–Sack microlens array; M1, M2, Badal system of mirrors; M’s, mirrors; L1L3, lens system (see text for details); L, lenses. BS1, BS2, beam splitters; SF, spatial filter; ES, electronic shutter; RD, system of rotating diffusers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Artificial eye experiment: (a) registered HS image (512×512 pixels), (b) simultaneously acquired “retinal” image, (c) example of a WA represented wrapped, (d) detail of the associated PSF. (e) and (f) average of 20 recentered “retinal” images and a deconvolved object, respectively (both 256×256 pixels). A mask is used in (e) and (f) to cover pixels without relevant information to improve visualization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real eye experiment: (a) HS image (512×512 pixels), (b) simultaneously acquired fundus image, (c) example of a WA represented wrapped, (d) detail of the associated PSF, (e) and (f) average of nine recentered fundus images and a deconvolved object, respectively (both 256×256 pixels).

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oe=FT-1IiSi*/SiSi*,

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