Abstract

Phase and intensity from correlation and spectrum only (PICASO) is a simple and accurate method for fully characterizing femtosecond pulses. We extend this technique to make use of third-order intensity correlations. Unbalancing the interferometer makes the retrieval algorithm sensitive to the direction of time and improves the retrieval of certain pulse shapes. We investigate the sensitivity of the retrieval to direction of time as a function of the degree of imbalance in the correlator.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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1999 (4)

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 264.

Barad, Y.

Bernstein, A.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992).

DeLong, K. W.

Diels, J.-C.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fontaine, J. J.

Gaeta, A.

A. Streltsov, K. Moll, A. Gaeta, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3778 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

Ippen, E. P.

Jasapara, J.

Kane, D. J.

Krumbügel, M. A.

Kung, P.

A. Streltsov, K. Moll, A. Gaeta, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3778 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Langlois, P.

Lester, L.

McMichael, I. C.

Meshulach, D.

Mogi, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K.

A. Streltsov, K. Moll, A. Gaeta, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3778 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Omenetto, F. G.

Peatross, J.

Pshenichnikov, M.

A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 264.

Pugzlys, A.

A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 264.

Razeghi, M.

A. Streltsov, K. Moll, A. Gaeta, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3778 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

Rundquist, A.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Silberberg, Y.

Simoni, F.

Streltsov, A.

A. Streltsov, K. Moll, A. Gaeta, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3778 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Trebino, R.

Tsang, T.

Walker, D.

A. Streltsov, K. Moll, A. Gaeta, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3778 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Wiersma, D. A.

A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 264.

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K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Retrieval of a synthetic pulse with a third-order spectral phase. Solid curves, the target; dashed curves (squares), the intensity and phase retrieved from a second-order (unbalanced, third-order) correlation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for retrieving intensity and phase from unbalanced third-order correlations and the pulse spectrum. The filter transmission was α2=0.5, and the filter substrate was 1.1-mm-thick BK7 glass. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Retrieval of pulses from an experimentally measured spectrum and an unbalanced, third-order correlation. Solid (dashed) curves, correlations measured with the parabolic mirror (the microscope objective). Inset, a measured correlation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieval error of synthetic pulses as a function of the intensity unbalance, α2. Retrieval errors for pulses with correct and incorrect (reversed) directions of time are shown.

Equations (1)

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Aτ=-α4I2tIt-τ+α2I2t-τItdt.

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