Abstract

An experimental and theoretical study of intrinsic correlations and noise-suppression mechanisms in two-stage femtosecond mid-IR light sources is presented. The setup, based on parametric amplification in BBO and subsequent difference-frequency mixing in AgGaS2, delivers 100fs mid-IR pulses with 12µJ energy. Exceptionally low pulse-energy fluctuations of only 0.2% in the mid-IR λ36 µm are found, which are much smaller than the Ti:sapphire amplifer noise. The noise suppression is analyzed and found to stem from the interplay between dispersion and pump depletion.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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2000 (1)

1998 (1)

V. D. Kleinman, S. M. Arrivo, J. S. Melinger, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. 233, 207 (1998).

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

M. Li, J. Owrutsky, M. Sarisky, J. P. Culver, A. Yodh, and R. M. Hochstasser, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5499 (1993).

D. Zimdars, A. Tokmakoff, S. Chen, S. R. Greenfield, and M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2718 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arrivo, S. M.

V. D. Kleinman, S. M. Arrivo, J. S. Melinger, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. 233, 207 (1998).

Bakker, H. J.

Chen, S.

D. Zimdars, A. Tokmakoff, S. Chen, S. R. Greenfield, and M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2718 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

M. Li, J. Owrutsky, M. Sarisky, J. P. Culver, A. Yodh, and R. M. Hochstasser, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5499 (1993).

D’Alessandro, G.

Danielius, R.

De Silvestri, S.

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyn, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Emmerichs, U.

Fayer, M. D.

D. Zimdars, A. Tokmakoff, S. Chen, S. R. Greenfield, and M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2718 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gale, G. M.

Gallot, G.

Greenfield, S. R.

D. Zimdars, A. Tokmakoff, S. Chen, S. R. Greenfield, and M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2718 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurzadyn, G. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyn, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Hamm, P.

P. Hamm, M. Lim, and R. M. Hochstrasser, J. Chem. Phys. 197, 10523 (1997).

Heilweil, E. J.

V. D. Kleinman, S. M. Arrivo, J. S. Melinger, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. 233, 207 (1998).

Hochstasser, R. M.

M. Li, J. Owrutsky, M. Sarisky, J. P. Culver, A. Yodh, and R. M. Hochstasser, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5499 (1993).

Hochstrasser, R. M.

P. Hamm, M. Lim, and R. M. Hochstrasser, J. Chem. Phys. 197, 10523 (1997).

Kleinman, V. D.

V. D. Kleinman, S. M. Arrivo, J. S. Melinger, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. 233, 207 (1998).

Li, M.

M. Li, J. Owrutsky, M. Sarisky, J. P. Culver, A. Yodh, and R. M. Hochstasser, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5499 (1993).

Lim, M.

P. Hamm, M. Lim, and R. M. Hochstrasser, J. Chem. Phys. 197, 10523 (1997).

Magni, V.

Melinger, J. S.

V. D. Kleinman, S. M. Arrivo, J. S. Melinger, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. 233, 207 (1998).

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyn, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

Noak, F.

Oppo, G.-L.

Owrutsky, J.

M. Li, J. Owrutsky, M. Sarisky, J. P. Culver, A. Yodh, and R. M. Hochstasser, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5499 (1993).

Petrov, V.

Piskarskas, A.

Sander, R.

Sarisky, M.

M. Li, J. Owrutsky, M. Sarisky, J. P. Culver, A. Yodh, and R. M. Hochstasser, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5499 (1993).

Scroggie, A. J.

Svelto, O.

Tokmakoff, A.

D. Zimdars, A. Tokmakoff, S. Chen, S. R. Greenfield, and M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2718 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valiulis, G.

Varanavicius, A.

Woutersen, S.

Yodh, A.

M. Li, J. Owrutsky, M. Sarisky, J. P. Culver, A. Yodh, and R. M. Hochstasser, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5499 (1993).

Zimdars, D.

D. Zimdars, A. Tokmakoff, S. Chen, S. R. Greenfield, and M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2718 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. (1)

V. D. Kleinman, S. M. Arrivo, J. S. Melinger, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. 233, 207 (1998).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

M. Li, J. Owrutsky, M. Sarisky, J. P. Culver, A. Yodh, and R. M. Hochstasser, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5499 (1993).

P. Hamm, M. Lim, and R. M. Hochstrasser, J. Chem. Phys. 197, 10523 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Zimdars, A. Tokmakoff, S. Chen, S. R. Greenfield, and M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2718 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyn, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration: DM1 and DM2, dichroic mirrors. See text for details.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, Distribution of single-shot energies around their mean values (measured for 50,000 laser shots) of the Ti:sapphire amplifier, correlated with the distribution of the generated mid-IR pulses. Delay time τI-II is varied, and τp-s is set to 0. τI-II=τp-s=0 is defined as the point at which maximum mid-IR energy is obtained. b, Left-hand scale, experimentally observed slope of the correlation between total mid-IR energy and pump energy (solid curve) and of the spectral peak intensity (dashed–dotted curve); right-hand scale, mid-IR pulse energy (dotted curve). c, Same quantities as in b from the theoretical model, for τp-s=80 fs. Delay zeros denote identical geometric pathways. τI-II=τp-s denote identical geometrical pathways.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal profiles of the pulses for setting of optimal noise suppression τp-s=80 fs, τI-II=-240 fs. The effect of noise is depicted by variation of the input pump energy by +2% (solid curves) or -2% (dashed–dotted curves). a, Input and exit from the BBO crystal. Time zero is defined by the peak position and the group velocity of the original pump pulse. (b) Exit of the AgGaS2 crystal. Time zero is defined by the peak position and the group velocity of the original pulse, I. Inset, power spectrum (left-hand scale) and spectral phase (right-hand scale) of the mid-IR pulses.

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