Abstract

We measure the timing error of femtosecond pulses amplified by a Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier at a 1-kHz repetition rate by use of a modified cross-correlation technique. Linearly frequency-chirped amplified pulses are frequency mixed with transform-limited oscillator pulses. A shift in the sum frequency corresponds to the timing error of each amplified pulse relative to the oscillator pulses. The timing error was measured every 6  ms with approximately 1-fs resolution over a measurable range of 400  fs.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Endo, in Femtosecond Technology, T. Kamiya, F. Saito, O. Wada, and H. Yajima, eds. (Springer, New York, 1999), Chap.  V-6, pp. 303–312.
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Kobayashi, T. Miura, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Proc. SPIE 3616, 156 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Tsuchida, Opt. Lett. 23, 286 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Kobayashi, T. Miura, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Proc. SPIE 3616, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chin, A. H.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Endo, A.

A. Endo, in Femtosecond Technology, T. Kamiya, F. Saito, O. Wada, and H. Yajima, eds. (Springer, New York, 1999), Chap.  V-6, pp. 303–312.
[CrossRef]

Glover, T. E.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. J.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, T. Miura, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Proc. SPIE 3616, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolmeder, C.

C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Leemans, W. P.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miura, T.

K. Kobayashi, T. Miura, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Proc. SPIE 3616, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlein, R. W.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

K. Kobayashi, T. Miura, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Proc. SPIE 3616, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

Volfbeyn, P.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

K. Kobayashi, T. Miura, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Proc. SPIE 3616, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zorotorev, M.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Kobayashi, T. Miura, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Proc. SPIE 3616, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zorotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Endo, in Femtosecond Technology, T. Kamiya, F. Saito, O. Wada, and H. Yajima, eds. (Springer, New York, 1999), Chap.  V-6, pp. 303–312.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frequency mixing by chirped and unchirped pulses. The mixed frequency corresponds to a relative time lag of the fundamental pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the cross correlator for timing-fluctuation measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectrum shift of the cross-correlation signal as a result of an intentional timing change. (b) Spectrum centroid shift calculated from Eq.  (1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Rapid timing fluctuation of our regenerative amplifier. (b) Fourier transform of (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Timing drift of a kilohertz amplified pulse train. The signal spectrum was measured every 10  s with the fastest CCD scanning time.

Equations (1)

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λ¯=λIλdλIλdλ,

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