Abstract

We present a novel fiber-optic confocal microscope in which the scanning operation is achieved by use of a spatial light modulator (SLM) to sequentially illuminate individual fibers or patterns of multiple fibers. Experimental images are presented, and the optical-sectioning capability of the device is demonstrated. The novel SLM-based system is more optically efficient, achieves higher contrast, and has improved optical-sectioning capabilities compared with those of other proposed instruments for confocal microendoscopy.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

P. J. Verveer, Q. S. Hanley, P. W. Verbeek, L. J. Van Viliet, and T. M. Jovin, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 189, 192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. E. MacAulay and A. Dlugan, Proc. SPIE 3260, 201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

M. Liang, R. L. Stehr, and A. W. Krause, Opt. Lett. 22, 751 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Hornbeck, Proc. SPIE 3013, 27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Proc. SPIE 2655, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, Opt. Lett. 21, 764 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

L. Giniunas, R. Juskatis, and S. V. Shatalin, Electron. Lett. 27, 724 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Aziz, D.

Carlini, A. R.

Dabbs, T.

Dickensheets, D. L.

Dlugan, A.

C. E. MacAulay and A. Dlugan, Proc. SPIE 3260, 201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, L.

Giniunas, L.

L. Giniunas, R. Juskatis, and S. V. Shatalin, Electron. Lett. 27, 724 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glass, M.

Gmitro, A. F.

Hanley, Q. S.

P. J. Verveer, Q. S. Hanley, P. W. Verbeek, L. J. Van Viliet, and T. M. Jovin, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 189, 192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, M. F.

Hornbeck, L. J.

L. J. Hornbeck, Proc. SPIE 3013, 27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jovin, T. M.

P. J. Verveer, Q. S. Hanley, P. W. Verbeek, L. J. Van Viliet, and T. M. Jovin, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 189, 192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Juskaitis, R.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Proc. SPIE 2655, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Juskatis, R.

L. Giniunas, R. Juskatis, and S. V. Shatalin, Electron. Lett. 27, 724 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Krause, A. W.

Liang, M.

MacAulay, C. E.

C. E. MacAulay and A. Dlugan, Proc. SPIE 3260, 201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rouse, A. R.

Sabharwal, Y. S.

Shatalin, S. V.

L. Giniunas, R. Juskatis, and S. V. Shatalin, Electron. Lett. 27, 724 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stehr, R. L.

Van Viliet, L. J.

P. J. Verveer, Q. S. Hanley, P. W. Verbeek, L. J. Van Viliet, and T. M. Jovin, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 189, 192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, P. W.

P. J. Verveer, Q. S. Hanley, P. W. Verbeek, L. J. Van Viliet, and T. M. Jovin, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 189, 192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verveer, P. J.

P. J. Verveer, Q. S. Hanley, P. W. Verbeek, L. J. Van Viliet, and T. M. Jovin, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 189, 192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watson, T. F.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Proc. SPIE 2655, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Proc. SPIE 2655, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, Opt. Lett. 12, 227 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Giniunas, R. Juskatis, and S. V. Shatalin, Electron. Lett. 27, 724 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (Oxford) (1)

P. J. Verveer, Q. S. Hanley, P. W. Verbeek, L. J. Van Viliet, and T. M. Jovin, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 189, 192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (3)

C. E. MacAulay and A. Dlugan, Proc. SPIE 3260, 201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Proc. SPIE 2655, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Hornbeck, Proc. SPIE 3013, 27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scanning (1)

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Individual fiber cores within the imaging bundle are illuminated by activation of an appropriate set of DMD mirrors. M1, plane mirror; BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of a Intel 486 microprocessor: (a)–(c) wide-field images at three different focal planes, (d)–(f) confocal images at the same levels. The scale bars are 10 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Axial response of a plane mirror scanned through the focus. The FWHM is 1.6 µm.

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