Abstract

We demonstrate a new method for imaging through several millimeters of a turbid sample with a resolution of approximately 100 µm by combining aspects of confocal reflectance microscopy and diffuse optical tomography. By laterally displacing the pinhole aperture of a confocal microscope we can achieve small source–detector separations and detect minimally scattered light. A reconstruction algorithm based on the first Born approximation to the radiative transport equation is then used to reconstruct an image of a 100µm absorbing object located 2  mm beneath the surface.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. Webb, and R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 78 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Bevilacqua and C. Depeursinge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2935 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Mourant, J. Boyer, A. Hielscher, and I. Bigio, Opt. Lett. 21, 546 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1978), Vol. 1.
  8. A. Dunn, C. Smithpeter, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. J. Welch, Appl. Opt. 35, 3441 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Sassarolia, B. Blumetti, F. Martelli, L. Alianelli, D. Contini, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, Appl. Opt. 37, 7392 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Webb, G. Hughes, and F. Delori, Appl. Opt. 26, 1492 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. Webb, and R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Alianelli, L.

Anderson, R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. Webb, and R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S.

S. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, F.

Bigio, I.

Blumetti, B.

Boyer, J.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contini, D.

Delori, F.

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Dunn, A.

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. Webb, and R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. Webb, and R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, G.

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1978), Vol. 1.

Ismaelli, A.

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

Mourant, J.

Puliafito, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. Webb, and R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Sassarolia, A.

Schuman, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smithpeter, C.

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. Webb, and R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Webb, G. Hughes, and F. Delori, Appl. Opt. 26, 1492 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

Zaccanti, G.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Inverse Probl. (1)

S. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. Webb, and R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (2)

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1978), Vol. 1.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry for imaging at small source–detector separations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the perturbed signals computed with the first Born approximation (solid curves) and with a full perturbative Monte Carlo simulation (symbols) at source–detector separations of 500 µm and 2  mm for an object located 1  mm beneath the surface with δμa=0.1 mm-1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstructed images of a 100µm absorbing object located at depths of 1  mm (left) and 2  mm (right) below the surface, obtained from simulated data δμa=0.1 mm-1.

Equations (2)

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L0rd,Ωˆd=Sr,ΩˆG(r,Ωˆ|rd,Ωˆd)dΩˆd3r,
L1rd,Ωˆd=-δμarL0rs,r,Ωˆ×G(r,Ωˆ|rd,Ωˆd)dΩˆd3r,

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