Abstract

The concept of a multispectral confocal microscope for in vivo imaging is introduced. To demonstrate the concept we modified a slit-scan fluorescence confocal microendoscope incorporating a fiber-optic catheter for in vivo imaging to record multispectral images. The system was designed to examine cellular structures during optical biopsy and to exploit the diagnostic information contained within the spectral domain. Preliminary experiments were carried out in phantoms and cell cultures to demonstrate the potential of the technique.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

S. Sebille, M. Pereira, J. M. Millot, J. Jacquot, A. M. Delabrosie, M. Arnaud, and M. Manfait, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 23, 1152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

B. R. Masters, D. J. Aziz, A. F. Gmitro, J. H. Kerr, T. C. O’Grady, and L. Goldman, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 437 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Millot, J. M. Millot, H. Morjani, A. Desplaces, and M. Manfait, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45, 1255 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Juskatitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

T. F. Watson, Scanning 16, 168 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Millot, S. Sharonov, and M. Manfait, Cytometry 17, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

H. Ichijima, W. M. Petroll, J. V. Jester, P. A. Barry, P. M. Andrews, M. Dai, and H. D. Cavanagh, Cornea 12, 369 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Gmitro and D. Aziz, Opt. Lett. 18, 565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. Prashanth and A. P. Dhawan, Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. 16, 153 (1992).

Anderson, R. R.

Andrews, P. M.

H. Ichijima, W. M. Petroll, J. V. Jester, P. A. Barry, P. M. Andrews, M. Dai, and H. D. Cavanagh, Cornea 12, 369 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnaud, M.

S. Sebille, M. Pereira, J. M. Millot, J. Jacquot, A. M. Delabrosie, M. Arnaud, and M. Manfait, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aziz, D.

Aziz, D. J.

B. R. Masters, D. J. Aziz, A. F. Gmitro, J. H. Kerr, T. C. O’Grady, and L. Goldman, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 437 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, P. A.

H. Ichijima, W. M. Petroll, J. V. Jester, P. A. Barry, P. M. Andrews, M. Dai, and H. D. Cavanagh, Cornea 12, 369 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Cavanagh, H. D.

H. Ichijima, W. M. Petroll, J. V. Jester, P. A. Barry, P. M. Andrews, M. Dai, and H. D. Cavanagh, Cornea 12, 369 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, T.

Dai, M.

H. Ichijima, W. M. Petroll, J. V. Jester, P. A. Barry, P. M. Andrews, M. Dai, and H. D. Cavanagh, Cornea 12, 369 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Pradier, B.

Delabrosie, A. M.

S. Sebille, M. Pereira, J. M. Millot, J. Jacquot, A. M. Delabrosie, M. Arnaud, and M. Manfait, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desplaces, A.

C. Millot, J. M. Millot, H. Morjani, A. Desplaces, and M. Manfait, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45, 1255 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhawan, A. P.

K. Prashanth and A. P. Dhawan, Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. 16, 153 (1992).

Dickensheets, D. L.

Donaldson, L.

Follen, M.

Gmitro, A. F.

Goldman, L.

B. R. Masters, D. J. Aziz, A. F. Gmitro, J. H. Kerr, T. C. O’Grady, and L. Goldman, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 437 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopkins, M. F.

Ichijima, H.

H. Ichijima, W. M. Petroll, J. V. Jester, P. A. Barry, P. M. Andrews, M. Dai, and H. D. Cavanagh, Cornea 12, 369 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacquot, J.

S. Sebille, M. Pereira, J. M. Millot, J. Jacquot, A. M. Delabrosie, M. Arnaud, and M. Manfait, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jester, J. V.

H. Ichijima, W. M. Petroll, J. V. Jester, P. A. Barry, P. M. Andrews, M. Dai, and H. D. Cavanagh, Cornea 12, 369 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juskatitis, R.

R. Juskatitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. H.

B. R. Masters, D. J. Aziz, A. F. Gmitro, J. H. Kerr, T. C. O’Grady, and L. Goldman, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 437 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

Malpica, A.

Manfait, M.

S. Sebille, M. Pereira, J. M. Millot, J. Jacquot, A. M. Delabrosie, M. Arnaud, and M. Manfait, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Millot, J. M. Millot, H. Morjani, A. Desplaces, and M. Manfait, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45, 1255 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Millot, S. Sharonov, and M. Manfait, Cytometry 17, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masters, B. R.

B. R. Masters, D. J. Aziz, A. F. Gmitro, J. H. Kerr, T. C. O’Grady, and L. Goldman, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 437 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millot, C.

C. Millot, J. M. Millot, H. Morjani, A. Desplaces, and M. Manfait, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45, 1255 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millot, J. M.

S. Sebille, M. Pereira, J. M. Millot, J. Jacquot, A. M. Delabrosie, M. Arnaud, and M. Manfait, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Millot, J. M. Millot, H. Morjani, A. Desplaces, and M. Manfait, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45, 1255 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Millot, S. Sharonov, and M. Manfait, Cytometry 17, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morjani, H.

C. Millot, J. M. Millot, H. Morjani, A. Desplaces, and M. Manfait, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45, 1255 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Grady, T. C.

B. R. Masters, D. J. Aziz, A. F. Gmitro, J. H. Kerr, T. C. O’Grady, and L. Goldman, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 437 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, M.

S. Sebille, M. Pereira, J. M. Millot, J. Jacquot, A. M. Delabrosie, M. Arnaud, and M. Manfait, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petroll, W. M.

H. Ichijima, W. M. Petroll, J. V. Jester, P. A. Barry, P. M. Andrews, M. Dai, and H. D. Cavanagh, Cornea 12, 369 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prashanth, K.

K. Prashanth and A. P. Dhawan, Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. 16, 153 (1992).

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Richards-Kortum, R.

Rogomentich, F. J.

Rouse, A. R.

Sabharwal, Y. S.

Sebille, S.

S. Sebille, M. Pereira, J. M. Millot, J. Jacquot, A. M. Delabrosie, M. Arnaud, and M. Manfait, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharonov, S.

J. M. Millot, S. Sharonov, and M. Manfait, Cytometry 17, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, P.

Sung, K.

Tearney, G. J.

Watson, T. F.

R. Juskatitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Watson, Scanning 16, 168 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Wilson, T.

R. Juskatitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1)

S. Sebille, M. Pereira, J. M. Millot, J. Jacquot, A. M. Delabrosie, M. Arnaud, and M. Manfait, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. (1)

K. Prashanth and A. P. Dhawan, Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. 16, 153 (1992).

Cornea (1)

H. Ichijima, W. M. Petroll, J. V. Jester, P. A. Barry, P. M. Andrews, M. Dai, and H. D. Cavanagh, Cornea 12, 369 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry (1)

J. M. Millot, S. Sharonov, and M. Manfait, Cytometry 17, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. R. Masters, D. J. Aziz, A. F. Gmitro, J. H. Kerr, T. C. O’Grady, and L. Goldman, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 437 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1)

C. Millot, J. M. Millot, H. Morjani, A. Desplaces, and M. Manfait, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45, 1255 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Scanning (2)

R. Juskatitis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, Scanning 19, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Watson, Scanning 16, 168 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the MCME.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phantom of 6µm green, 15µm yellow, and 15µm red fluorescent microspheres. The microspheres were spectrally sorted into a, green; b, yellow; and c, red channels. d, Spectra of a representative microsphere from each channel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Human lung cancer cells stained with AO. a, Green channel showing primarily nucleus; b, red channel showing primarily cytoplasm; c, gray-scale image; d, RGB color reconstruction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Rat sinusoidal endothelial cells stained with AO. a, RGB color reconstruction; b, spectra from the nucleus and cytoplasm of the highlighted cell.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured spectral response of a He–Ne laser.

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