Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel detection technique, based on a modified electronic phase-locked loop, for Doppler optical coherence tomography. The technique permits real-time simultaneous reflectivity and continuous, bidirectional velocity mapping in turbid media over a wide velocity range with minimal sensitivity penalty compared with conventional optical coherence tomography, which is a major advance over current postprocessing and discrete parallel detection techniques.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

Barton, J. K.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

de Boer, J. F.

Dinnar, U.

U. Dinnar, Cardiovascular Fluid Dynamics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1981).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 15, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 15, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 15, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kulkarni, M.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 15, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Petrig, B. L.

Puliafito, C. A.

Pulifito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riva, C. E.

Rollins, A. M.

Saxer, C.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 15, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulifito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Wang, X.

Welch, A. J.

Xiang, S.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zhao, Y.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the modified PLL detection technique: LPF’s, low-pass filters; VCO, voltage-controlled oscillator. See text for other definitions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated normalized amplitudes of interferogram envelopes versus Doppler shift (sample velocity) for conventional bandpass detection and PLL-based detection. Inset, ranges of mean blood-flow velocities in the human body.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured signals obtained from a glass plate as the sample: a, interferogram; b, envelope; c, VCO output.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional mapping of a, reflectivity and b, velocity of diluted milk flowing through a glass tube. (c) Velocity profile across the sample.

Equations (2)

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vs0=2 ln4λ0πlcns cos θvr.
vsPLL=αPLLns cos θvr.

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