Abstract

For a neutral  40Ca-based optical frequency standard we report a fractional frequency instability of 4×10-15 in 1 s, which represents a fivefold improvement over existing atomic frequency standards. Using the technique of optical Bordé–Ramsey spectroscopy with a sample of 107 trapped atoms, we have resolved linewidths as narrow as 200 Hz (FWHM). With colder atoms this system could potentially achieve an instability as low as 2×10-16 in 1 s. Such low instabilities are important for frequency standards and precision tests of fundamental physics.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Ruschewitz, J. L. Peng, H. Hinderthür, N. Schafrath, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3173 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Zinner, T. Trebst, and J. Helmcke, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 613 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. W. Oates, F. Bondu, R. Fox, and L. Hollberg, Eur. J. Phys. D 7, 449 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Prestage, R. L. Tjoelker, and L. Maleki, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 121.
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Gubin, A. Shelkovnikov, E. Kovalchuk, D. Krylova, E. Petrukhin, and D. Tyurikov, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 710.
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Santarelli, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. L. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, and D. J. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 12 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Zhu and J. L. Hall, in Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, F. B. Dunning and R. G. Hulet, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Vol. 29C, pp. 103–136.
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. J. Bordé, Phys. Lett. A 140, 10 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, and L. Hollberg, “Direct comparison between two cold-atom-based optical frequency standards using a femtosecond-laser comb,” submitted to Optics Letters.

1999 (5)

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Zinner, T. Trebst, and J. Helmcke, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Oates, F. Bondu, R. Fox, and L. Hollberg, Eur. J. Phys. D 7, 449 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

C. Santarelli, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Ruschewitz, J. L. Peng, H. Hinderthür, N. Schafrath, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

C. J. Bordé, Phys. Lett. A 140, 10 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. L. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, and D. J. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 12 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Barger, R. L.

R. L. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, and D. J. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 12 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, and D. J. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 12 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, and L. Hollberg, “Direct comparison between two cold-atom-based optical frequency standards using a femtosecond-laser comb,” submitted to Optics Letters.

Bollinger, J. J.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bondu, F.

C. W. Oates, F. Bondu, R. Fox, and L. Hollberg, Eur. J. Phys. D 7, 449 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, C. J.

C. J. Bordé, Phys. Lett. A 140, 10 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

C. Santarelli, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

C. Santarelli, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, F. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Curtis, E. A.

K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, and L. Hollberg, “Direct comparison between two cold-atom-based optical frequency standards using a femtosecond-laser comb,” submitted to Optics Letters.

Diddams, S. A.

K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, and L. Hollberg, “Direct comparison between two cold-atom-based optical frequency standards using a femtosecond-laser comb,” submitted to Optics Letters.

English, T. C.

R. L. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, and D. J. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 12 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ertmer, W.

F. Ruschewitz, J. L. Peng, H. Hinderthür, N. Schafrath, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fox, R.

C. W. Oates, F. Bondu, R. Fox, and L. Hollberg, Eur. J. Phys. D 7, 449 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fox, R. W.

K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, and L. Hollberg, “Direct comparison between two cold-atom-based optical frequency standards using a femtosecond-laser comb,” submitted to Optics Letters.

Gilligan, J. M.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glaze, D. J.

R. L. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, and D. J. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 12 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gubin, M.

M. Gubin, A. Shelkovnikov, E. Kovalchuk, D. Krylova, E. Petrukhin, and D. Tyurikov, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 710.
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu and J. L. Hall, in Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, F. B. Dunning and R. G. Hulet, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Vol. 29C, pp. 103–136.
[CrossRef]

Heinzen, D. J.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmcke, J.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Zinner, T. Trebst, and J. Helmcke, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hinderthür, H.

F. Ruschewitz, J. L. Peng, H. Hinderthür, N. Schafrath, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

C. W. Oates, F. Bondu, R. Fox, and L. Hollberg, Eur. J. Phys. D 7, 449 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, and L. Hollberg, “Direct comparison between two cold-atom-based optical frequency standards using a femtosecond-laser comb,” submitted to Optics Letters.

Hong, F. L.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovalchuk, E.

M. Gubin, A. Shelkovnikov, E. Kovalchuk, D. Krylova, E. Petrukhin, and D. Tyurikov, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 710.
[CrossRef]

Krylova, D.

M. Gubin, A. Shelkovnikov, E. Kovalchuk, D. Krylova, E. Petrukhin, and D. Tyurikov, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 710.
[CrossRef]

Laurent, P.

C. Santarelli, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. D.

K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, and L. Hollberg, “Direct comparison between two cold-atom-based optical frequency standards using a femtosecond-laser comb,” submitted to Optics Letters.

Lemonde, P.

C. Santarelli, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Zinner, T. Trebst, and J. Helmcke, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

C. Santarelli, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. S.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

J. D. Prestage, R. L. Tjoelker, and L. Maleki, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 121.
[CrossRef]

Mann, A. G.

C. Santarelli, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moore, F. L.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oates, C. W.

C. W. Oates, F. Bondu, R. Fox, and L. Hollberg, Eur. J. Phys. D 7, 449 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, and L. Hollberg, “Direct comparison between two cold-atom-based optical frequency standards using a femtosecond-laser comb,” submitted to Optics Letters.

Peng, J. L.

F. Ruschewitz, J. L. Peng, H. Hinderthür, N. Schafrath, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrukhin, E.

M. Gubin, A. Shelkovnikov, E. Kovalchuk, D. Krylova, E. Petrukhin, and D. Tyurikov, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 710.
[CrossRef]

Pfister, O.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prestage, J. D.

J. D. Prestage, R. L. Tjoelker, and L. Maleki, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 121.
[CrossRef]

Rafac, R. J.

K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, and L. Hollberg, “Direct comparison between two cold-atom-based optical frequency standards using a femtosecond-laser comb,” submitted to Optics Letters.

Raizen, M. G.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riehle, F.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Zinner, T. Trebst, and J. Helmcke, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruschewitz, F.

F. Ruschewitz, J. L. Peng, H. Hinderthür, N. Schafrath, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, C.

C. Santarelli, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, C.

C. Santarelli, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schafrath, N.

F. Ruschewitz, J. L. Peng, H. Hinderthür, N. Schafrath, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Zinner, T. Trebst, and J. Helmcke, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sengstock, K.

F. Ruschewitz, J. L. Peng, H. Hinderthür, N. Schafrath, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shelkovnikov, A.

M. Gubin, A. Shelkovnikov, E. Kovalchuk, D. Krylova, E. Petrukhin, and D. Tyurikov, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 710.
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tiemann, B.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tjoelker, R. L.

J. D. Prestage, R. L. Tjoelker, and L. Maleki, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 121.
[CrossRef]

Trebst, T.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Zinner, T. Trebst, and J. Helmcke, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tyurikov, D.

M. Gubin, A. Shelkovnikov, E. Kovalchuk, D. Krylova, E. Petrukhin, and D. Tyurikov, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 710.
[CrossRef]

Vogel, K. R.

K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, and L. Hollberg, “Direct comparison between two cold-atom-based optical frequency standards using a femtosecond-laser comb,” submitted to Optics Letters.

Wineland, D. J.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Young, B. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu and J. L. Hall, in Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, F. B. Dunning and R. G. Hulet, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Vol. 29C, pp. 103–136.
[CrossRef]

Zinner, G.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Zinner, T. Trebst, and J. Helmcke, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. L. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, and D. J. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 12 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Phys. D (1)

C. W. Oates, F. Bondu, R. Fox, and L. Hollberg, Eur. J. Phys. D 7, 449 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Zinner, T. Trebst, and J. Helmcke, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

C. J. Bordé, Phys. Lett. A 140, 10 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

F. Ruschewitz, J. L. Peng, H. Hinderthür, N. Schafrath, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

C. Santarelli, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. D. Prestage, R. L. Tjoelker, and L. Maleki, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 121.
[CrossRef]

M. Gubin, A. Shelkovnikov, E. Kovalchuk, D. Krylova, E. Petrukhin, and D. Tyurikov, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 710.
[CrossRef]

K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, and L. Hollberg, “Direct comparison between two cold-atom-based optical frequency standards using a femtosecond-laser comb,” submitted to Optics Letters.

M. Zhu and J. L. Hall, in Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, F. B. Dunning and R. G. Hulet, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Vol. 29C, pp. 103–136.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical Bordé–Ramsey fringes taken at the natural linewidth of 400 Hz (FWHM). The total data averaging time was 1 min.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Frequency fluctuations (for an optical frequency of 456 THz) between the Ca signal and the Fabry–Perot reference cavity. (b) Allan deviation for fluctuations shown in (a) (the filled circles represent data points). The contribution to the Allan deviation by the noise on the blue readout system is shown by the dashed curve.

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