Abstract

We report what is to our knowledge the first detailed investigation of the polarization state of radiation from lens-coupled terahertz dipole antennas. The radiation exhibits a weak but measurable component that is polarized orthogonally to the orientation of the emitter dipole. The angular radiation pattern of this cross-polarized emission reveals that it is quadrupolar, rather than dipolar, in nature. One can understand this result by taking into account the photocurrent flowing in the strip lines that feed the dipole antenna. A Fresnel–Kirchhoff scalar diffraction calculation is used for calculating the frequency-dependent angular distribution of the radiation pattern, providing satisfactory agreement with the measurements.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. J. Bensky, G. Haeffler, and R. R. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2018 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. Nuss, and M. Geva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA 2000 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 55.
  9. R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Garet, L. Duvillaret, and J.-L. Coutaz, Proc. SPIE 3617, 30 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1495 (1979).
  14. P. U. Jepsen, “THz radiation patterns from dipole antennas and guided ultrafast pulse propagation,” M.S. Thesis (Odense Universitet, Odense, Denmark, 1994).

1999 (1)

F. Garet, L. Duvillaret, and J.-L. Coutaz, Proc. SPIE 3617, 30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bensky, G. Haeffler, and R. R. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2018 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. Nuss, and M. Geva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. Jepsen and S. R. Keiding, Opt. Lett. 20, 807 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Auston, D. H.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bensky, T. J.

T. J. Bensky, G. Haeffler, and R. R. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2018 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coutaz, J.-L.

F. Garet, L. Duvillaret, and J.-L. Coutaz, Proc. SPIE 3617, 30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

D. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. Nuss, and M. Geva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA 2000 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 55.

Duvillaret, L.

F. Garet, L. Duvillaret, and J.-L. Coutaz, Proc. SPIE 3617, 30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Froberg, N. M.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Garet, F.

F. Garet, L. Duvillaret, and J.-L. Coutaz, Proc. SPIE 3617, 30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geva, M.

D. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. Nuss, and M. Geva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Haeffler, G.

T. J. Bensky, G. Haeffler, and R. R. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2018 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA 2000 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 55.

Hu, B. B.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P.

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, “THz radiation patterns from dipole antennas and guided ultrafast pulse propagation,” M.S. Thesis (Odense Universitet, Odense, Denmark, 1994).

Jones, R. R.

T. J. Bensky, G. Haeffler, and R. R. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2018 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

Lopata, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

Mittleman, D.

D. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. Nuss, and M. Geva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M.

D. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. Nuss, and M. Geva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA 2000 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 55.

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. Nuss, and M. Geva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. J. Bensky, G. Haeffler, and R. R. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2018 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Garet, L. Duvillaret, and J.-L. Coutaz, Proc. SPIE 3617, 30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA 2000 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 55.

P. U. Jepsen, “THz radiation patterns from dipole antennas and guided ultrafast pulse propagation,” M.S. Thesis (Odense Universitet, Odense, Denmark, 1994).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental arrangement. The receiver is mounted upon a rail that pivots under the transmitter. (b) Schematic of the emitter antenna. The dotted lines define the coordinate system used in the calculations; the z axis points into the substrate. The arrows show the flow of current from one strip line through the dipole to the other strip line, as described in the text. (c) Calculated angular field pattern for a quadrupole radiator of the type illustrated in (b). The dashed curve is the pattern for a radiator in free space; the solid curve shows the pattern modified by the presence of a high dielectric n=3.42 substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Waveforms measured at the specified angles in the E-plane of the emitter antenna: (a) s-polarized emission (perpendicular to the emitter dipole), (b) p-polarized emission (parallel to the dipole). The vertical axis in (b) is reduced relative to that in (a) by a factor of 20, and all waveforms have been vertically displaced for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured amplitude of the s-polarized radiation as a function of frequency and emission angle, showing a minimum at θ=0° for all frequency components.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Amplitude of the s-polarized radiation as a function of θ for three representative frequency components. Open circles are measured data; solid curves are calculated as described in the text. All the data and calculations have been normalized to unity amplitude.

Equations (1)

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EQsin θ cos θ sin 2φθˆ+sin θ cos 2φφˆ,

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