Abstract

We report the infrared operation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide fabricated in silicon. Measurements of the transmission spectrum reveal a large transmission bandwidth within the 3.15.5µm bulk-crystal photonic bandgap and a rich resonance structure. The calculated transmission spectrum for this structure is in good agreement with the measured spectrum and predicts a 10% single-mode bandwidth for the waveguide.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Olerhand, D. A. Smith, and K. Kash, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. B. Temelkuran and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 486 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. O. Hanaizumi, Y. Ohtera, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 777 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, Electron. Lett. 35, 654 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. V. Lehmann, J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2836 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  11. U. Grüning, V. Lehmann, S. Ottow, and K. Busch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 747 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Otto, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Foll, and U. Gösele, Phy. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. This transmission is less than that obtained with an estimate based on the measured spot size of 25 µm and a waveguide width of 1.1 µm (the approximate distance between pores adjacent to the waveguide), which gives a transmission of 4.8%. The transmission deficit is attributed to the clipping of the beam by the substrate and to diffraction losses in the emergent beam.
  15. The difference between the calculated and the measured spectral envelopes is caused by imperfect normalization of the experimental data and also by a difference in the termination of the crystal at the waveguide facets, which was recently shown16 to have a significant effect on the transmission spectrum.
  16. J. Yonekura, M. Ikeda, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 178, 1500 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).
  18. A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 58, 4809 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (6)

B. Temelkuran and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 486 (1999).
[Crossref]

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Ohtera, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 777 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, Electron. Lett. 35, 654 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Yonekura, M. Ikeda, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 178, 1500 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Otto, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Foll, and U. Gösele, Phy. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 58, 4809 (1998).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

U. Grüning, V. Lehmann, S. Ottow, and K. Busch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 747 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Olerhand, D. A. Smith, and K. Kash, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

V. Lehmann, J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2836 (1993).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, Electron. Lett. 35, 654 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Yonekura, M. Ikeda, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 178, 1500 (1999).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649 (1999).
[Crossref]

Birner, A.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Otto, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Foll, and U. Gösele, Phy. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Busch, K.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
[Crossref]

U. Grüning, V. Lehmann, S. Ottow, and K. Busch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 747 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. C.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devenyi, A.

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Olerhand, D. A. Smith, and K. Kash, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 58, 4809 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fan, S. H.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foll, H.

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Otto, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Foll, and U. Gösele, Phy. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fukaya, N.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, Electron. Lett. 35, 654 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gösele, U.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Otto, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Foll, and U. Gösele, Phy. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Grüning, U.

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Otto, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Foll, and U. Gösele, Phy. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[Crossref]

U. Grüning, V. Lehmann, S. Ottow, and K. Busch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 747 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hanaizumi, O.

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Ohtera, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 777 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hietala, V.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houdré, R.

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, M.

J. Yonekura, M. Ikeda, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 178, 1500 (1999).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 58, 4809 (1998).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Olerhand, D. A. Smith, and K. Kash, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

John, S.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kash, K.

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Olerhand, D. A. Smith, and K. Kash, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, S.

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Ohtera, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 777 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kosaka, H.

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kurland, I.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Labilloy, D.

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lehmann, V.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Otto, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Foll, and U. Gösele, Phy. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[Crossref]

U. Grüning, V. Lehmann, S. Ottow, and K. Busch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 747 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Lehmann, J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2836 (1993).
[Crossref]

Leonard, S. W.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, A. P.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meade, R. D.

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Olerhand, D. A. Smith, and K. Kash, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 58, 4809 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, F.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Otto, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Foll, and U. Gösele, Phy. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oesterle, U.

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ohtera, Y.

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Ohtera, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 777 (1999).
[Crossref]

Olerhand, O. L.

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Olerhand, D. A. Smith, and K. Kash, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753 (1994).
[Crossref]

Otto, S.

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Otto, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Foll, and U. Gösele, Phy. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ottow, S.

U. Grüning, V. Lehmann, S. Ottow, and K. Busch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 747 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

B. Temelkuran and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sato, T.

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Ohtera, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 777 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schneider, A.

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Otto, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Foll, and U. Gösele, Phy. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smith, C. J. M.

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649 (1999).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. A.

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Olerhand, D. A. Smith, and K. Kash, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753 (1994).
[Crossref]

Temelkuran, B.

B. Temelkuran and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tokushima, M.

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tomita, A.

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

van Driel, H. M.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weisbuch, C.

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649 (1999).
[Crossref]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, H.

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yonekura, J.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, Electron. Lett. 35, 654 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Yonekura, M. Ikeda, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 178, 1500 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

B. Temelkuran and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 486 (1999).
[Crossref]

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Ohtera, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 777 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

U. Grüning, V. Lehmann, S. Ottow, and K. Busch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 747 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, K. Busch, S. John, A. Birner, A. P. Li, F. Müller, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3063 (1999).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, Electron. Lett. 35, 654 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Yonekura, M. Ikeda, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 178, 1500 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Olerhand, D. A. Smith, and K. Kash, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

V. Lehmann, J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2836 (1993).
[Crossref]

Phy. Status Solidi A (1)

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Otto, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Foll, and U. Gösele, Phy. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 58, 4809 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

This transmission is less than that obtained with an estimate based on the measured spot size of 25 µm and a waveguide width of 1.1 µm (the approximate distance between pores adjacent to the waveguide), which gives a transmission of 4.8%. The transmission deficit is attributed to the clipping of the beam by the substrate and to diffraction losses in the emergent beam.

The difference between the calculated and the measured spectral envelopes is caused by imperfect normalization of the experimental data and also by a difference in the termination of the crystal at the waveguide facets, which was recently shown16 to have a significant effect on the transmission spectrum.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microstructured bar of macroporous silicon photonic crystal with a waveguide oriented in the ΓK direction. The triangular lattice of air pores cladding the waveguide has a pitch of 1.5 µm and a depth of 100 µm. The wider areas of the bar provide mechanical stability when the structure is capped from above to prohibit extraneous transmission. The pores assume a cylindrical cross section within a depth of approximately 1 µm from the surface. The sample used for transmission experiments had larger pore radii than the sample shown in these images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured and (b) calculated H-polarized transmission spectrum of the waveguide shown in Fig. 1 with a length of 18a.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Computed H-polarized band structure of the waveguide shown in Fig. 1. Solid and dotted curves correspond to even and odd modes, respectively. The bands at the right (labeled with arrows) appear to be due to the overetched pores on either side of the waveguide. The shaded areas correspond to the projected band structure of the bulk photonic crystal.

Metrics