Abstract

We demonstrate that a significant improvement can be obtained in the recognition of complicated synthetic aperture radar images taken from the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisitions and Recognition database. These images typically have a low number of scattering centers and high noise. We first preprocess the images and the templates formed from them so that their scattering centers are enhanced. Our technique can produce high-quality performance in several correlation criteria. For realistic automatic target recognition systems, our approach should make it easy to implement optical recognition systems with binarized data for many different types of correlation filter and should have a great effect on feeding data-compressed (binarized) information into either digital or optical processors.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. G. Boone, Signal Processing Using Optics: Fundamentals, Devices, Architecture and Applications (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1998), Chap. 11, pp. 281–311.
  2. R. Shenoy and D. P. Casasent, Proc. SPIE 3070, 121 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Murenzi, D. Semwogerere, D. Johnson, L. Kaplan, and K. Namuduri, presented at the Second Annual ARL Federated Laboratory Symposium, College Park, Md., February 2–6, 1998.
  4. S. A. Stanhope, E. Keydel, W. Williams, V. Rajilic, and R. Sieron, Proc. SPIE 3370, 360 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Boshra and B. Bhanu, Proc. SPIE 3370, 661 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Horner and P. D. Gianino, Appl. Opt. 23, 812 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. L. Horner and J. R. Leger, Appl. Opt. 24, 609 (1985); J. Khoury, P. D. Gianino, J. S. Kane, and C. L. Woods, Opt. Eng. 33, 856 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Casasent and S. Ashizawa, Opt. Eng. 36, 2729 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Shenoy and D. Casasent, Proc. SPIE 3370, 435 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. K. Barton, Modern Radar Systems Analysis (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1988), p. 209.
  11. H. Urkowitz, in Modern Radar Analysis Evaluation and System Design, R. S. Berkowitz, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 1, pp. 197–215.
  12. P. D. Gianino and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 23, 695 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (3)

S. A. Stanhope, E. Keydel, W. Williams, V. Rajilic, and R. Sieron, Proc. SPIE 3370, 360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Boshra and B. Bhanu, Proc. SPIE 3370, 661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Shenoy and D. Casasent, Proc. SPIE 3370, 435 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. Casasent and S. Ashizawa, Opt. Eng. 36, 2729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Shenoy and D. P. Casasent, Proc. SPIE 3070, 121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

J. L. Horner and P. D. Gianino, Appl. Opt. 23, 812 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Gianino and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 23, 695 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ashizawa, S.

D. Casasent and S. Ashizawa, Opt. Eng. 36, 2729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barton, D. K.

D. K. Barton, Modern Radar Systems Analysis (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1988), p. 209.

Bhanu, B.

M. Boshra and B. Bhanu, Proc. SPIE 3370, 661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boone, B. G.

B. G. Boone, Signal Processing Using Optics: Fundamentals, Devices, Architecture and Applications (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1998), Chap. 11, pp. 281–311.

Boshra, M.

M. Boshra and B. Bhanu, Proc. SPIE 3370, 661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Casasent, D.

R. Shenoy and D. Casasent, Proc. SPIE 3370, 435 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Casasent and S. Ashizawa, Opt. Eng. 36, 2729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Casasent, D. P.

R. Shenoy and D. P. Casasent, Proc. SPIE 3070, 121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gianino, P. D.

P. D. Gianino and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 23, 695 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Horner and P. D. Gianino, Appl. Opt. 23, 812 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Horner, J. L.

Johnson, D.

R. Murenzi, D. Semwogerere, D. Johnson, L. Kaplan, and K. Namuduri, presented at the Second Annual ARL Federated Laboratory Symposium, College Park, Md., February 2–6, 1998.

Kaplan, L.

R. Murenzi, D. Semwogerere, D. Johnson, L. Kaplan, and K. Namuduri, presented at the Second Annual ARL Federated Laboratory Symposium, College Park, Md., February 2–6, 1998.

Keydel, E.

S. A. Stanhope, E. Keydel, W. Williams, V. Rajilic, and R. Sieron, Proc. SPIE 3370, 360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leger, J. R.

Murenzi, R.

R. Murenzi, D. Semwogerere, D. Johnson, L. Kaplan, and K. Namuduri, presented at the Second Annual ARL Federated Laboratory Symposium, College Park, Md., February 2–6, 1998.

Namuduri, K.

R. Murenzi, D. Semwogerere, D. Johnson, L. Kaplan, and K. Namuduri, presented at the Second Annual ARL Federated Laboratory Symposium, College Park, Md., February 2–6, 1998.

Rajilic, V.

S. A. Stanhope, E. Keydel, W. Williams, V. Rajilic, and R. Sieron, Proc. SPIE 3370, 360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Semwogerere, D.

R. Murenzi, D. Semwogerere, D. Johnson, L. Kaplan, and K. Namuduri, presented at the Second Annual ARL Federated Laboratory Symposium, College Park, Md., February 2–6, 1998.

Shenoy, R.

R. Shenoy and D. Casasent, Proc. SPIE 3370, 435 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Shenoy and D. P. Casasent, Proc. SPIE 3070, 121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sieron, R.

S. A. Stanhope, E. Keydel, W. Williams, V. Rajilic, and R. Sieron, Proc. SPIE 3370, 360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stanhope, S. A.

S. A. Stanhope, E. Keydel, W. Williams, V. Rajilic, and R. Sieron, Proc. SPIE 3370, 360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Urkowitz, H.

H. Urkowitz, in Modern Radar Analysis Evaluation and System Design, R. S. Berkowitz, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 1, pp. 197–215.

Williams, W.

S. A. Stanhope, E. Keydel, W. Williams, V. Rajilic, and R. Sieron, Proc. SPIE 3370, 360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Opt. Eng. (2)

D. Casasent and S. Ashizawa, Opt. Eng. 36, 2729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Gianino and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 23, 695 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

R. Shenoy and D. Casasent, Proc. SPIE 3370, 435 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Shenoy and D. P. Casasent, Proc. SPIE 3070, 121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Stanhope, E. Keydel, W. Williams, V. Rajilic, and R. Sieron, Proc. SPIE 3370, 360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Boshra and B. Bhanu, Proc. SPIE 3370, 661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. Murenzi, D. Semwogerere, D. Johnson, L. Kaplan, and K. Namuduri, presented at the Second Annual ARL Federated Laboratory Symposium, College Park, Md., February 2–6, 1998.

D. K. Barton, Modern Radar Systems Analysis (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1988), p. 209.

H. Urkowitz, in Modern Radar Analysis Evaluation and System Design, R. S. Berkowitz, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 1, pp. 197–215.

B. G. Boone, Signal Processing Using Optics: Fundamentals, Devices, Architecture and Applications (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1998), Chap. 11, pp. 281–311.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, gray-level image Brdm-2, Hb 14932 extracted from its ROI. B, C, and D show the image in A raised to powers n of 2, 3, and 4, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fourier transforms of the images shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A, binarized input image for Brdm-2, Hb 14932. B, C, and D show the image in A raised to powers of n of 2, 3, and 4, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation results for the inputs shown in Fig. 3. A, B, C, and D refer to powers n of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively.

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