Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally that, in a paraelectric, nonstationary boundary conditions can dynamically halt the intrinsic instability of quasi-steady-state photorefractive self-trapping, driving beam evolution into a stable oscillating two-soliton-state configuration.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996).
  2. M. Segev and M. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998); G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Segev, G. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. In linear configurations; see, e.g., A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. H. Kwak, and L. Solymar, Opt. Lett. 19, 1299 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1664 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Gatz and J. Herrmann, Opt. Lett. 23, 1176 (1998); M. Saffman and A. A. Zozulya, Opt. Lett. 23, 1579 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Phys. Rev. A 54, R2563 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Carvalho, S. Singh, and D. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 120, 311 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 25, 963 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

S. Gatz and J. Herrmann, Opt. Lett. 23, 1176 (1998); M. Saffman and A. A. Zozulya, Opt. Lett. 23, 1579 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev and M. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998); G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Phys. Rev. A 54, R2563 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Carvalho, S. Singh, and D. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 120, 311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Segev, G. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

In linear configurations; see, e.g., A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. H. Kwak, and L. Solymar, Opt. Lett. 19, 1299 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

Agranat, A. J.

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 25, 963 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, M.

M. Carvalho, S. Singh, and D. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 120, 311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D.

M. Carvalho, S. Singh, and D. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 120, 311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degasperis, A.

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Della Pergola, R.

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DelRe, E.

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 25, 963 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Di Porto, P.

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G. C.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatz, S.

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

In linear configurations; see, e.g., A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. H. Kwak, and L. Solymar, Opt. Lett. 19, 1299 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996).

Herrmann, J.

Hofmeister, R.

Kwak, C. H.

Marquez Aguilar, P. A.

P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Phys. Rev. A 54, R2563 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Refaeli, E.

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez Mondragon, J. J.

P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Phys. Rev. A 54, R2563 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev and M. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998); G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shultz, J. L.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S.

M. Carvalho, S. Singh, and D. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 120, 311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Solymar, L.

In linear configurations; see, e.g., A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. H. Kwak, and L. Solymar, Opt. Lett. 19, 1299 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996).

Stegeman, M.

M. Segev and M. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998); G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, S.

P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Phys. Rev. A 54, R2563 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tamburrini, M.

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 25, 963 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G.

M. Segev, G. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vysloukh, V.

P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Phys. Rev. A 54, R2563 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996).

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Carvalho, S. Singh, and D. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 120, 311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Phys. Rev. A 54, R2563 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

M. Segev and M. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998); G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stable two-state oscillation of a slab-soliton beam subject to a square-wave bias: (a) normalized input intensity profile (b) output intensity profile after 2.4-mm linear propagation in the crystal; (c), (d) output intensity self-trapped profiles of the two alternating states.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stable two-state oscillation of a needle-soliton beam subject to a square wave of peak-to-peak amplitude Vsq=700 V and period Tsq=10 s: (a) input intensity 6µm FWHM distribution; (b) output intensity 150µm distribution after 6.4-mm linear propagation in the crystal; (c), (d) output intensity self-trapped profiles of the two alternating states.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Soliton swinging: slab-beam transient dynamics for τ12 s and Tsq=10 s in a 6.4-mm-long sample of KLTN. (a) Top view y direction of linear diffraction. (b), (c) Two opposite transient self-trapped states.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Breakdown of the two-state formation process, with the output intensity distribution conditions of Fig. 1: (a) initial output diffraction for V=0, (b) quasi-steady-state self-trapping for V=V+, (c) readout intensity for V=0 (after soliton formation), (d) readout intensity for V=V-, (e)–(h) specular results starting from V=V-.

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