Abstract

We report the excitation by flexural acoustic waves of an individual cladding mode in a single-mode photonic crystal fiber. The propagation constant and the field distributions of the mode have been investigated by use of this technique. The results give the basis for developing a family of acousto-optic devices based on photonic crystal fibers.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996); erratum,  22, 484 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 53 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, 24, 1460 (1999).
  8. B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. E. Engan, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 11, 389 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3481 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (4)

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

1986 (1)

Arriaga, J.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atkin, D. M.

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996); erratum,  22, 484 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, J. N.

Cregan, R. F.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Culverhouse, D. O.

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De Sandro, J. P.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diez, A.

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, 24, 1460 (1999).

Engan, H. E.

Kakarantzas, G.

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996); erratum,  22, 484 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Russell, P. St. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996); erratum,  22, 484 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, H. J.

Silvestre, E.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, 24, 1460 (1999).

Stenz, A. J.

Strasser, T. A.

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, 24, 1460 (1999).

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, 24, 1460 (1999).

Windeler, R. S.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, 24, 1460 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, 24, 1460 (1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope image of the cleaved end face of the PCF. The pitch is 3 µm, the diameter of the hole is 0.5 µm, and the outer diameter is 51 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized transmission spectra for different acoustic frequencies. The amplitude and frequency of the flexural wave are (a) 95 nm and 545 kHz, (b) 44 nm and 954 kHz, (c) 45 nm and 1.225 MHz, and (d) 23 nm (dotted curve), 32 nm (dashed curve), 47 nm (solid curve), and 1.5 MHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of the resonance center wavelength as a function of the (a) acoustic frequency and (b) acoustic wavelength. (c) Propagation-constant difference between the core mode and the cladding mode as a function of the wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field images of transmitted light when the laser was tuned to 855 nm and the acoustic wave was (a) off and (b) on. The amplitude of the flexural wave in the fiber was 47 nm, and the frequency was 1.5 MHz.

Equations (1)

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Lb=2π/Δβ=Λ,

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