Abstract

We present what is to our knowledge the first theoretical analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers. The fibers are characterized by a large hollow core and a microstructured cladding exhibiting photonic bandgap effects. Using an efficient, full-vectorial numerical method, we explain the operational principle of the fibers and obtain detailed information about the properties of the air-guided modes. This information includes accurate determination of the modes’ spectral extent, cutoff properties, and mode-field distributions.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Broeng, D. Mogilevtsev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Broeng, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, and A. Bjarklev, Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization properties of photonic bandgap fibers,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).
  7. T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and N. G. R. Broderick, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, and P. Andres, Opt. Lett. 24, 276 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. L. Alerhand, Phys. Rev. B 48, 8434 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Matsuura and M. Miyagi, Proc. SPIE 3343, 222 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. J. Bennett, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 293.
  12. J. B. Nielsen, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and M. B. Nielsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 1736 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (6)

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevtsev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broeng, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, and A. Bjarklev, Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and N. G. R. Broderick, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, and P. Andres, Opt. Lett. 24, 276 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Nielsen, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and M. B. Nielsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 1736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

Y. Matsuura and M. Miyagi, Proc. SPIE 3343, 222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. L. Alerhand, Phys. Rev. B 48, 8434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alerhand, O. L.

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. L. Alerhand, Phys. Rev. B 48, 8434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andres, P.

Barbeito, P. M.

J. Broeng, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, and A. Bjarklev, Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barkou, S. E.

J. Broeng, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, and A. Bjarklev, Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevtsev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Nielsen, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and M. B. Nielsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 1736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization properties of photonic bandgap fibers,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Bennett, P. J.

P. J. Bennett, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 293.

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

J. Broeng, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, and A. Bjarklev, Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevtsev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Nielsen, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and M. B. Nielsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 1736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization properties of photonic bandgap fibers,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Broderick, N. G. R.

Broeng, J.

J. Broeng, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, and A. Bjarklev, Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevtsev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Nielsen, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and M. B. Nielsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 1736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization properties of photonic bandgap fibers,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Brommer, K. D.

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. L. Alerhand, Phys. Rev. B 48, 8434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrando, A.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. L. Alerhand, Phys. Rev. B 48, 8434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuura, Y.

Y. Matsuura and M. Miyagi, Proc. SPIE 3343, 222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. L. Alerhand, Phys. Rev. B 48, 8434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miret, J. J.

Miyagi, M.

Y. Matsuura and M. Miyagi, Proc. SPIE 3343, 222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mogilevtsev, D.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevtsev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and N. G. R. Broderick, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bennett, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 293.

Nielsen, J. B.

J. B. Nielsen, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and M. B. Nielsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 1736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. B.

J. B. Nielsen, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and M. B. Nielsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 1736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rappe, A. M.

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. L. Alerhand, Phys. Rev. B 48, 8434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and N. G. R. Broderick, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bennett, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 293.

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Silvestre, E.

Søndergaard, T.

J. Broeng, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, and A. Bjarklev, Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Nielsen, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and M. B. Nielsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 1736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. B. Nielsen, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and M. B. Nielsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 1736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevtsev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. L. Alerhand, Phys. Rev. B 48, 8434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Matsuura and M. Miyagi, Proc. SPIE 3343, 222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Broeng, T. Søndergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, and A. Bjarklev, Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization properties of photonic bandgap fibers,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

P. J. Bennett, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 293.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photonic band-structure diagram of a silica–air triangular photonic crystal with a 70% air-filling fraction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the photonic bandgaps with the normalized propagation constant. A full analysis of the large-core photonic bandgap fiber revealed the presence of two core modes. The top left inset shows the traces of those modes for a normalized propagation constant interval from βΛ=7.8 to βΛ=9.3 and a kΛ interval from 8.1 to 9.9. The bottom right inset shows the core and the inner cladding structure of the fiber (the white areas are silica).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Field distributions of (a) the fundamental air-guided mode and (b) the leaky second-order mode.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

×1rr×Hr=ω2c2Hr.
Hr=Gγ=1,2hk+G,γexpik+G·r,
EH=×1rr×H|HH|H.
NPBG=βH2-βL2rco24
NPBG=k2n12-βL2rco24,

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