Abstract

Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT), an extension of conventional OCT, is demonstrated for performing cross-sectional tomographic and spectroscopic imaging. Information on the spectral content of backscattered light is obtained by detection and processing of the interferometric OCT signal. This method allows the spectrum of backscattered light to be measured over the entire available optical bandwidth simultaneously in a single measurement. Specific spectral features can be extracted by use of digital signal processing without changing the measurement apparatus. An ultrabroadband femtosecond Ti:Al2O3 laser was used to achieve spectroscopic imaging over the wavelength range from 650 to 1000 nm in a simple model as well as in vivo in the Xenopus laevis (African frog) tadpole. Multidimensional spectroscopic data are displayed by use of a novel hue-saturation false-color mapping.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

I. Daubechies, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 36, 961 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

Angelow, G.

Barton, J. K.

Boppart, S. A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Colston, B. W.

DaSilva, L. B.

Daubechies, I.

I. Daubechies, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 36, 961 (1990).
[CrossRef]

De Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

Everett, M. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkami, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 59–60.

Jacques, S. L.

Kärtner, F. X.

Knuttel, A.

Kulkami, M. D.

Kulkarni, M. D.

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 59–60.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. De Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Nelson, J. S.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. De Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

Parsa, P.

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sathyam, U. S.

Scheuer, V.

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschudi, T.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. De Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

Xiang, S. H.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yung, K. M.

1996 OSA Technical Digest Series

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 59–60.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

I. Daubechies, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 36, 961 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OCT schematic. The broadband laser source is coupled into a Michelson-type interferometer. The resulting interferogram IDτ contains spectroscopic information about the reflected–backscattered light. The envelope of IDτ is used in standard OCT imaging to detect the intensity of the reflected–backscattered light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectroscopic OCT image of a colored glass wedge (Schott RG-850) on a silver mirror (top). The colored glass transmission characteristics are depicted on the bottom. In the spectroscopic OCT image a green hue indicates a shift of the spectral center of gravity to shorter wavelengths and a red hue, a shift to longer wavelengths. With increasing wedge thickness, the short-wavelength components of the backreflected spectrum are increasingly absorbed, as can be seen in the variation in hue (green to red) of the mirror reflection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo conventional OCT (approximately 1 µm×5 µm longitudinal×transverse resolution) and spectroscopic OCT of an African frog tadpole (Xenopus laevis). Mesanchymal cells of various sizes are clearly visualized. A green hue indicates a short-wavelength shift of the center of gravity of the spectrum, and a red hue, a long-wavelength shift. Melanocytes (arrows) appear bright red, probably because of enhanced absorption of melanin at shorter wavelengths. Some melanocytes are differentiated by spectroscopic OCT that are difficult to resolve by use of conventional OCT.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IDz=EωrBSωtBSωexpikz+rSω,z2Dωdω,
WΩ,τ=IDt+τexp-t/t02expiΩtdt2=FIDt+τexp-t/t022.

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