Abstract

We investigate the applicability of two-line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) from seeded indium atoms for temperature measurements in highly sooting flames. The results show that TLAF holds promise for two-dimensional temperature measurements in sooting and fuel-rich flames under conditions in which other thermometry techniques fail, a result that is attributed to the superior characteristics of the indium atomization process. Furthermore, no native species was found to interfere spectrally with the detected TLAF wavelengths. Advantages of and problems with the technique are discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).
  2. P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129 (1992).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. U. E. Meier, D. Wolff-Gassmann, J. Heinze, M. Frodermann, I. Magnusson, and G. Josefsson, presented at the 18th International Conference on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Toulouse, France, June 14–17, 1999.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. P. A. Bonczyk, Fuel 70, 1403 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. L. Vander Wal and K. J. Wieland, Appl. Phys. B 59, 445 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Mewes and J. M. Sietzman, Appl. Opt. 36, 709 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Zizak, N. Omenetto, and J. D. Winefordner, Opt. Eng. 23, 749 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. F. Kaminski, J. Engström, and M. Aldén, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. W. Daily, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 23, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mewes and J. M. Sietzman, Appl. Opt. 36, 709 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

R. L. Vander Wal and K. J. Wieland, Appl. Phys. B 59, 445 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Kohse-Höinghause, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 20, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1988 (1)

U. Wieschnowsky, H. Bockhorn, and F. Fetting, Proc. Combust. Inst. 22, 343 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. Zizak, N. Omenetto, and J. D. Winefordner, Opt. Eng. 23, 749 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

B. S. Haynes, H. Jander, and H. G. Wagner, Proc. Combust. Inst. 17, 1365 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Aldén, M.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Engström, and M. Aldén, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

Alkemade, C. Th. J.

C. Th. J. Alkemade, Flame Emission and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Vol. 1 of Fundamental Aspects of Decomposition, Atomization, and Excitation of the Sample in the Flame, J. A. Dean and T. C. Rains, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1972), pp. 101–150.

Bengtsson, P.-E.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bockhorn, H.

U. Wieschnowsky, H. Bockhorn, and F. Fetting, Proc. Combust. Inst. 22, 343 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bonczyk, P. A.

P. A. Bonczyk, Fuel 70, 1403 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Daily, J. W.

J. W. Daily, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 23, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

Engström, J.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Engström, and M. Aldén, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

Fetting, F.

U. Wieschnowsky, H. Bockhorn, and F. Fetting, Proc. Combust. Inst. 22, 343 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Frodermann, M.

U. E. Meier, D. Wolff-Gassmann, J. Heinze, M. Frodermann, I. Magnusson, and G. Josefsson, presented at the 18th International Conference on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Toulouse, France, June 14–17, 1999.

Haraguchi, H.

Haynes, B. S.

B. S. Haynes, H. Jander, and H. G. Wagner, Proc. Combust. Inst. 17, 1365 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Heinze, J.

U. E. Meier, D. Wolff-Gassmann, J. Heinze, M. Frodermann, I. Magnusson, and G. Josefsson, presented at the 18th International Conference on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Toulouse, France, June 14–17, 1999.

Hoffman, D.

Horvath, J. J.

Jander, H.

B. S. Haynes, H. Jander, and H. G. Wagner, Proc. Combust. Inst. 17, 1365 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Joklik, R. G.

Josefsson, G.

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

U. E. Meier, D. Wolff-Gassmann, J. Heinze, M. Frodermann, I. Magnusson, and G. Josefsson, presented at the 18th International Conference on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Toulouse, France, June 14–17, 1999.

Kaminski, C. F.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Engström, and M. Aldén, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

Kohse-Höinghause, K.

K. Kohse-Höinghause, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 20, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kröll, S.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

Magnusson, I.

U. E. Meier, D. Wolff-Gassmann, J. Heinze, M. Frodermann, I. Magnusson, and G. Josefsson, presented at the 18th International Conference on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Toulouse, France, June 14–17, 1999.

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

Martinsson, L.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U. E.

U. E. Meier, D. Wolff-Gassmann, J. Heinze, M. Frodermann, I. Magnusson, and G. Josefsson, presented at the 18th International Conference on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Toulouse, France, June 14–17, 1999.

Mewes, B.

Münch, K.-U.

Omenetto, N.

G. Zizak, N. Omenetto, and J. D. Winefordner, Opt. Eng. 23, 749 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Semerjian, H. G.

Sietzman, J. M.

Vander Wal, R. L.

R. L. Vander Wal and K. J. Wieland, Appl. Phys. B 59, 445 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, H. G.

B. S. Haynes, H. Jander, and H. G. Wagner, Proc. Combust. Inst. 17, 1365 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, K. J.

R. L. Vander Wal and K. J. Wieland, Appl. Phys. B 59, 445 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wieschnowsky, U.

U. Wieschnowsky, H. Bockhorn, and F. Fetting, Proc. Combust. Inst. 22, 343 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

G. Zizak, N. Omenetto, and J. D. Winefordner, Opt. Eng. 23, 749 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. Haraguchi and J. D. Winefordner, Appl. Spectrosc. 31, 330 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wolff-Gassmann, D.

U. E. Meier, D. Wolff-Gassmann, J. Heinze, M. Frodermann, I. Magnusson, and G. Josefsson, presented at the 18th International Conference on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Toulouse, France, June 14–17, 1999.

Zizak, G.

G. Zizak, N. Omenetto, and J. D. Winefordner, Opt. Eng. 23, 749 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. L. Vander Wal and K. J. Wieland, Appl. Phys. B 59, 445 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fuel (1)

P. A. Bonczyk, Fuel 70, 1403 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Zizak, N. Omenetto, and J. D. Winefordner, Opt. Eng. 23, 749 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Combust. Inst. (3)

C. F. Kaminski, J. Engström, and M. Aldén, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Haynes, H. Jander, and H. G. Wagner, Proc. Combust. Inst. 17, 1365 (1979).
[CrossRef]

U. Wieschnowsky, H. Bockhorn, and F. Fetting, Proc. Combust. Inst. 22, 343 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (2)

J. W. Daily, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 23, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Kohse-Höinghause, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 20, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

U. E. Meier, D. Wolff-Gassmann, J. Heinze, M. Frodermann, I. Magnusson, and G. Josefsson, presented at the 18th International Conference on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Toulouse, France, June 14–17, 1999.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

C. Th. J. Alkemade, Flame Emission and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Vol. 1 of Fundamental Aspects of Decomposition, Atomization, and Excitation of the Sample in the Flame, J. A. Dean and T. C. Rains, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1972), pp. 101–150.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra from three C2H2 flames seeded with the same indium concentration, collected through a spectrometer. The detected indium emission increases with Φ. The increasing background originated from the soot particle emission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean TLAF temperatures and two CARS reference temperatures for several Φ values in a C2H2/air flame (bottom). Top, the 410-nm TLAF signals for Φ=1 and Φ=3.5. The temperatures were calculated in the regions indicated by the rectangles shown in the fluorescence images.

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