Abstract

We present a method based on photon migration of extracting intrinsic fluorescence spectra from turbid media, using concomitantly measured fluorescence and reflectance. Intrinsic fluorescence is defined as fluorescence that is due only to fluorophores, without interference from the absorbers and scatterers that are present. Application to fluorescence spectra taken with tissue phantoms and human mucosal tissues demonstrates excellent agreement in both spectral line shape and intensity between the extracted and the directly measured intrinsic fluorescence spectra.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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1999 (1)

1998 (1)

N. N. Zhadin and R. R. Alfano, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 171 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1982 (1)

A. Mayevsky and B. Chance, Science 217, 537 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

N. N. Zhadin and R. R. Alfano, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 171 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

Chance, B.

A. Mayevsky and B. Chance, Science 217, 537 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

Durkin, A. J.

Feld, M. S.

Fitzmaurice, M.

Gardner, C. M.

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1978).

Itzkan, I.

Jacques, S. L.

Jaikumar, S.

Manoharan, R.

Mayevsky, A.

A. Mayevsky and B. Chance, Science 217, 537 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

Ramanujam, N.

Rava, R. P.

Richards-Kortum, R.

Silveira, L.

Van Dam, J.

Welch, A. J.

Wu, J.

Zangaro, R. A.

Zhadin, N. N.

N. N. Zhadin and R. R. Alfano, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 171 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fluorescence spectra of a tissue phantom. The phantom is an aqueous solution–suspension of hemoglobin 2 g/l, polystyrene beads (0.65% by volume), and furan 2 0.9 µM. All spectra were excited with λx=337 nm. , measured phantom fluorescence; ol-25-19-1451-i001, intrinsic fluorescence of pure furan 2; ol-25-19-1451-i002, modeled intrinsic fluorescence from Eq. (4); ol-25-19-1451-i003, modeled intrinsic fluorescence from Ref. 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence EEM spectra of minced tissue: (a) fluorescence EEM of the mince (several millimeters thick); (b) intrinsic fluorescence EEM of the mince, measured with a thin 10µm section; (c) computed intrinsic fluorescence correction factor, Fxm/fxm; (d) modeled intrinsic fluorescence EEM of the mince extracted from (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence EEM’s of gastric mucosal tissue: (a) in vivo EEM spectra from a patient undergoing routine endoscopic examination, (b) extracted intrinsic fluorescence EEM spectra from (a).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R=n=1anρn=κa exp-β1-a exp-β.
Fxm=Ixhνxn=1i=0n-1ρniaxiμfxμax+μsxϕxmamn-i-1hνm,
fxm=Ix/hνxμfxlϕxmhνm.
fxm=Fxm1μsxlR0xR0mxm1/2RxR0xRmR0m+m.

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