Abstract

We report what is to our knowledge the first operation of a planar dielectric tapered-waveguide laser. The waveguide laser is fabricated by potassium-ion exchange in Nd3+-doped BK7 glass and consists of a single-mode channel waveguide of a few micrometers’ width followed by a linear taper up to a broad region with a width of 180 µm. A slope efficiency of 42% is found both in the tapers and in standard channel waveguides fabricated upon the same substrate, indicating that the tapers and the channels have similar internal losses; hence the low-loss nature of the tapered beam expansion. The output from either end of the tapered structure is found to be nearly diffraction limited.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, D. P. Shepherd, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and B. Ferrand, Opt. Lett. 23, 942 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
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2000 (1)

C. L. Bonner, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. P. Shepherd, C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Commun. 160, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

S. O’Brien, R. Lang, R. Parke, J. Major, D. F. Welch, and D. Mehuys, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 440 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Faulstich, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, Opt. Lett. 21, 594 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tamanuki, T. Sasaki, and M. Kitamura, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, J. Lane, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1550 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1979 (1)

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 653 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. F. Milton and W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 828 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Baker, H. J.

Bhutta, T.

C. L. Bonner, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, C. L.

C. L. Bonner, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Shepherd, C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Commun. 160, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, D. P. Shepherd, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and B. Ferrand, Opt. Lett. 23, 942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

D. P. Shepherd, C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Commun. 160, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, D. P. Shepherd, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and B. Ferrand, Opt. Lett. 23, 942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

A. F. Milton and W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 828 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

D. P. Shepherd, C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Commun. 160, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, D. P. Shepherd, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and B. Ferrand, Opt. Lett. 23, 942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faulstich, A.

Ferrand, B.

Hall, D. R.

Hanna, D. C.

D. P. Shepherd, C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Commun. 160, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, D. P. Shepherd, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and B. Ferrand, Opt. Lett. 23, 942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, M.

T. Tamanuki, T. Sasaki, and M. Kitamura, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, K.

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 653 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lane, J.

E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, J. Lane, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1550 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

S. O’Brien, R. Lang, R. Parke, J. Major, D. F. Welch, and D. Mehuys, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 440 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larson, D. R.

Major, J.

S. O’Brien, R. Lang, R. Parke, J. Major, D. F. Welch, and D. Mehuys, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 440 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Malone, K. J.

Mehuys, D.

S. O’Brien, R. Lang, R. Parke, J. Major, D. F. Welch, and D. Mehuys, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 440 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Milton, A. F.

A. F. Milton and W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 828 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mwarania, E. K.

E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, J. Lane, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1550 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

D. N. Nikogosyan, Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1997), Chap. 7.

O’Brien, S.

S. O’Brien, R. Lang, R. Parke, J. Major, D. F. Welch, and D. Mehuys, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 440 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, K.

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 653 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Parke, R.

S. O’Brien, R. Lang, R. Parke, J. Major, D. F. Welch, and D. Mehuys, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 440 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, N. A.

Sasaki, T.

T. Tamanuki, T. Sasaki, and M. Kitamura, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

C. L. Bonner, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Shepherd, C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Commun. 160, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, D. P. Shepherd, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and B. Ferrand, Opt. Lett. 23, 942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

Tamanuki, T.

T. Tamanuki, T. Sasaki, and M. Kitamura, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

C. L. Bonner, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Shepherd, C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Commun. 160, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, D. P. Shepherd, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and B. Ferrand, Opt. Lett. 23, 942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, J. Lane, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1550 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, M. N.

Welch, D. F.

S. O’Brien, R. Lang, R. Parke, J. Major, D. F. Welch, and D. Mehuys, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 440 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, J. Lane, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1550 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. L. Bonner, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Milton and W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 828 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. O’Brien, R. Lang, R. Parke, J. Major, D. F. Welch, and D. Mehuys, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 440 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 653 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, J. Lane, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1550 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. P. Shepherd, C. L. Bonner, C. T. A. Brown, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Commun. 160, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tamanuki, T. Sasaki, and M. Kitamura, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. N. Nikogosyan, Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1997), Chap. 7.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Output power versus absorbed pump power for the channel and tapered waveguide lasers with a 20% output coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Imaged spatial profiles of the output of the channel and tapered waveguide lasers as viewed with a CCD camera. The dimensions correspond to those observed at the camera.

Equations (3)

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LW2nm2λ,
nx,y=ns+Δn exp-x2/dx2erfcy/dy, y0,
ηmax=λpλs-ln R-ln R+L,

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