Abstract

We investigated the spectral behavior of a white-light continuum generated in air by 2-TW femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm. The spectrum extends at least from 300 nm to 4.5 µm. From 1 to 1.6 µm the continuum’s intensity increases strongly with the laser energy and depends on the initial chirp.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Smith, P. Liu, and M. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Strickland and P. B. Corkum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 492 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Lett. 21, 62 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B 68, 753 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Opt. Lett. 23, 2938 (1999).
  12. W. Yu, R. R. Alfano, C. L. Sam, and R. J. Seymour, Opt. Commun. 14, 344 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. B. Corkum, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, and J. T. Manassah, Opt. Lett. 10, 624 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, K. Ueda, and H. Takuma, Opt. Lett. 20, 2505 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).
  16. P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).
  17. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing—Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley/Interscience, New York, 1984).
  18. D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, R. Sauerbrey, and J. P. Wolf, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Ionique et Moléculaire, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5579, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, Lyon, France, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-reflection-enhanced back scattering from white light filaments induced by high intensity femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air.”
  19. A. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. I. Golub, Opt. Lett. 16, 305 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 152, 355 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2000

A. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B 68, 753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Opt. Lett. 23, 2938 (1999).

1998

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 152, 355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

1996

1995

1994

1990

I. Golub, Opt. Lett. 16, 305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985

1977

L. Smith, P. Liu, and M. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

W. Yu, R. R. Alfano, C. L. Sam, and R. J. Seymour, Opt. Commun. 14, 344 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R.

R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

P. B. Corkum, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, and J. T. Manassah, Opt. Lett. 10, 624 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yu, R. R. Alfano, C. L. Sam, and R. J. Seymour, Opt. Commun. 14, 344 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Andre, Y.-B.

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ange, G.

D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, R. Sauerbrey, and J. P. Wolf, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Ionique et Moléculaire, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5579, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, Lyon, France, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-reflection-enhanced back scattering from white light filaments induced by high intensity femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air.”

Bloembergen, M.

L. Smith, P. Liu, and M. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

Chin, S. L.

Chiron, A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

Curley, P. F.

Du, D.

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

Gaeta, A.

A. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golub, I.

I. Golub, Opt. Lett. 16, 305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

Ho, P. P.

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 152, 355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, R. Sauerbrey, and J. P. Wolf, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Ionique et Moléculaire, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5579, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, Lyon, France, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-reflection-enhanced back scattering from white light filaments induced by high intensity femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air.”

Kolesik, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Opt. Lett. 23, 2938 (1999).

Korn, G.

Lamouroux, B.

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.

L. Smith, P. Liu, and M. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Manassah, J. T.

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing—Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley/Interscience, New York, 1984).

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Opt. Lett. 23, 2938 (1999).

Moloney, J. V.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Opt. Lett. 23, 2938 (1999).

Mondelain, D.

D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, R. Sauerbrey, and J. P. Wolf, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Ionique et Moléculaire, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5579, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, Lyon, France, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-reflection-enhanced back scattering from white light filaments induced by high intensity femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air.”

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Lett. 21, 62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Niedermeier, S.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, R. Sauerbrey, and J. P. Wolf, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Ionique et Moléculaire, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5579, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, Lyon, France, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-reflection-enhanced back scattering from white light filaments induced by high intensity femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air.”

Nikolov, S.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Nishioka, H.

Odajima, W.

Prade, B.

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

Rairoux, P.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

Rodriguez, M.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

Ronneberger, F.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

Salin, F.

Sam, C. L.

W. Yu, R. R. Alfano, C. L. Sam, and R. J. Seymour, Opt. Commun. 14, 344 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B 68, 753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, R. Sauerbrey, and J. P. Wolf, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Ionique et Moléculaire, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5579, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, Lyon, France, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-reflection-enhanced back scattering from white light filaments induced by high intensity femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air.”

Schillinger, H.

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B 68, 753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

Seymour, R. J.

W. Yu, R. R. Alfano, C. L. Sam, and R. J. Seymour, Opt. Commun. 14, 344 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L.

L. Smith, P. Liu, and M. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stein, B.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

Strickland, D.

Takuma, H.

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

Volk, R.

D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, R. Sauerbrey, and J. P. Wolf, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Ionique et Moléculaire, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5579, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, Lyon, France, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-reflection-enhanced back scattering from white light filaments induced by high intensity femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air.”

Waite, D.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

Wedekind, C.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

Werner, Chr.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Wille, H.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

Wolf, J. P.

D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, R. Sauerbrey, and J. P. Wolf, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Ionique et Moléculaire, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5579, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, Lyon, France, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-reflection-enhanced back scattering from white light filaments induced by high intensity femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air.”

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 152, 355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Opt. Lett. 23, 2938 (1999).

Yu, J.

D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, R. Sauerbrey, and J. P. Wolf, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Ionique et Moléculaire, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5579, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, Lyon, France, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-reflection-enhanced back scattering from white light filaments induced by high intensity femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air.”

Yu, W.

W. Yu, R. R. Alfano, C. L. Sam, and R. J. Seymour, Opt. Commun. 14, 344 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B 68, 753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Optoelektron.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Chr. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Opt. Commun.

W. Yu, R. R. Alfano, C. L. Sam, and R. J. Seymour, Opt. Commun. 14, 344 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 152, 355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

L. Smith, P. Liu, and M. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. B (to be published).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing—Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley/Interscience, New York, 1984).

D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, R. Sauerbrey, and J. P. Wolf, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Ionique et Moléculaire, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5579, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, Lyon, France, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-reflection-enhanced back scattering from white light filaments induced by high intensity femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air.”

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured spectrum of the white-light continuum generated in the center of the beam by 2-TW laser pulses (laser system A). The results are shown for two different chirp settings that correspond to (i) an initial pulse duration of 35 fs without chirp after the compressor (filled symbols) and (ii) a 55-fs initial pulse duration with negative chirp after the compressor (open symbols). These curves are composed of 5 (4) distinct spectra from 5 (4) detection units, respectively, that correspond to the different symbol shapes for each curve. Inset, spectrum of the white-light continuum generated in the center of the beam by 100 fs pulses (laser system B) as a function of pulse power value (200 and 100 mJ for 2 and 1 TW, respectively). The two curves have the same normalization factor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Initial chirp dependence of the white-light continuum generated by laser system A at two distinct wavelengths (1.7 and 3 µm, with 5 nm resolution). The two curves have the same normalization. The chirp scale is shown as the change in the compressor length, with 0 set arbitrarily, to the chirp value of the curve with open symbols in Fig. 1. Numbers in italics are the corresponding calculated pulse lengths after the exit window and the lens.

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