Abstract

Radiation pressure induced by an evanescent field was experimentally analyzed for a single submicrometer-sized gold particle. The force measurement was based on a thermodynamic analysis of Brownian motion by use of a three-dimensional position-sensing technique. The lateral radiation pressure could be ascribed to a scattering force, which was oriented in the same direction as the propagation vector of the incident laser beam. The potential profile in the longitudinal direction indicated that the gold particle was attracted to the high-intensity region of the evanescent field by a gradient force.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. D. C. Prieve, Science 231, 1269 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. Hotta, K. Sasaki, H. Masuhara, and Y. Morishima, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 7687 (1998).

1997 (2)

T. Sugiura, T. Okada, Y. Inouye, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 22, 1663 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, M. Tsukima, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Hotta, K. Sasaki, and H. Masuhara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 11968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

H. Misawa, K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Opt. Lett. 16, 1463 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

1974 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, Opt. Lett. 19, 930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hotta, J.

J. Hotta, K. Sasaki, H. Masuhara, and Y. Morishima, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 7687 (1998).

J. Hotta, K. Sasaki, and H. Masuhara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 11968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

Kawata, S.

Kitamura, N.

K. Sasaki, H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Misawa, K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Opt. Lett. 16, 1463 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshioka, M.

H. Misawa, K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Opt. Lett. 16, 1463 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Masuhara, H.

J. Hotta, K. Sasaki, H. Masuhara, and Y. Morishima, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 7687 (1998).

K. Sasaki, M. Tsukima, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hotta, K. Sasaki, and H. Masuhara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 11968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Misawa, K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Opt. Lett. 16, 1463 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

H. Misawa, K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Opt. Lett. 16, 1463 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morishima, Y.

J. Hotta, K. Sasaki, H. Masuhara, and Y. Morishima, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 7687 (1998).

Nakamura, O.

Okada, T.

Prieve, D. C.

D. C. Prieve, Science 231, 1269 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, K.

J. Hotta, K. Sasaki, H. Masuhara, and Y. Morishima, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 7687 (1998).

K. Sasaki, M. Tsukima, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hotta, K. Sasaki, and H. Masuhara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 11968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Misawa, K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Opt. Lett. 16, 1463 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, C. F.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnapp, B. J.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiura, T.

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, Opt. Lett. 19, 930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsukima, M.

K. Sasaki, M. Tsukima, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamane, T.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Misawa, K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, M. Tsukima, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. Hotta, K. Sasaki, and H. Masuhara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 11968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. Hotta, K. Sasaki, H. Masuhara, and Y. Morishima, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 7687 (1998).

Nature (2)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

D. C. Prieve, Science 231, 1269 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lateral potentials exerted on a single gold particle (250 nm). The particle was trapped in water by a focused laser beam, and the potentials were observed with (on) and without (off) irradiation by an evanescent field. The curves are shifted vertically so that the minimum potential energy will be zero.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Potential curve of evanescent-field-induced radiation pressure in the x direction. The potential profile can be fitted to a linear function, and the gradient (the strength of the force) is 1.7 pN.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Longitudinal potentials observed for the same particle as in Fig. 1. On and off represent irradiation by and cutoff of an evanescent field, respectively. The potentials were normalized by the minima.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

z-directional potential profile of evanescent-field-induced radiation pressure. The maximum longitudinal force in the observed region is 60 fN.

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