Abstract

We used a novel phase-resolved optical Doppler tomographic (ODT) technique with very high flow-velocity sensitivity 10 µm/s and high spatial resolution 10 µm to image blood flow in port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks in human skin. In addition to the regular ODT velocity and structural images, we use the variance of blood flow velocity to map the PWS vessels. Our device combines ODT and therapeutic systems such that PWS blood flow can be monitored in situ before and after laser treatment. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first clinical application of ODT to provide a fast semiquantitative evaluation of the efficacy of PWS laser therapy in situ and in real time.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Greer, and J. M. Noe, J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. S. Nelson, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 88, 723 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2000

1999

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

1991

J. S. Nelson, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 88, 723 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Greer, and J. M. Noe, J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barsky, S. H.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Greer, and J. M. Noe, J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Chen, Z.

Dave, D.

de Boer, J. F.

Frostig, R. D.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Greer, D. E.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Greer, and J. M. Noe, J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Nelson, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 88, 723 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noe, J. M.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Greer, and J. M. Noe, J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prakash, N.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, S.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Greer, and J. M. Noe, J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Srinivas, S. M.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Xiang, S.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Greer, and J. M. Noe, J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Plast. Reconstr. Surg.

J. S. Nelson, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 88, 723 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic signal-processing diagram for the phase-resolved OCT/ODT system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tomographic images of a left upper extremity PWS. A, D, Structural images; B, E, Doppler-shift (blood flow velocity) images; C, and F, normalized variance of flow velocity. Images A–C are taken from the palm-side surface of the ring finger. Images D–F are taken from the forearm. The arrow in image A indicates the boundary between the stratum corneum and the epidermis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tomographic images of identical PWS sites before (A–C) and after (D–F) laser treatment. A, D, Structural images; B, E, Doppler-shift (blood flow velocity) images; C, and F, normalized variance of flow velocity. The vessel areas are marked by circles and arrows in the velocity and variance images.

Equations (3)

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Γ˜jt=Γjt+iπP-Γjττ-tdτ,
Δf=12πTtan-1Imj=1nΓ˜jΓ˜j+1*Rej=1nΓ˜jΓ˜j+1*,
σ2=-ω-ω¯2Pωdω-Pωdω=1T21-j=1nΓ˜jΓ˜j+1*j=1nΓ˜jΓ˜j*,

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