Abstract

A high-speed single-mode fiber–based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS OCT) system was developed. With a polarization modulator, Stokes parameters of reflected flight for four input polarization states are measured as a function of depth. A phase modulator in the reference arm of a Michelson interferometer permits independent control of the axial scan rate and carrier frequency. In vivo PS OCT images of human skin are presented, showing subsurface structures that are not discernible in conventional OCT images. A phase retardation image in tissue is calculated based on the reflected Stokes parameters of the four input polarization states.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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1999 (3)

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 300 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Yao and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 24, 537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

Bouma, B. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, S. S. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Express 3, 212 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colston, B. W.

Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J. F.

Everett, M. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1811 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 300 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pham, T. H.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poole, C. D.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Schoenenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, S. S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Ung-arunyawee, R.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, L. V.

Yao, G.

Yazdanfar, S.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fiber-based PS OCT system. Source: 1310 nm, 80-nm bandwidth; FB, fiber bench with bulk polarizer and quarter- and half-wave plates; Pol. Mod., LiNbO3 polarization modulator mounted in fiber bench; PC’s, static polarization controllers; PB, polarizing beam splitter; PD, photo diodes; Phase Mod., phase modulator; RSOD, defined in text; HP, hand piece mounted upon a motorized linear translation stage. Driving waveforms to the galvo of the RSOD and the polarization modulator show their respective timings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Poincaré’s sphere, with the Q, U, and V axes indicated. The dashed grand circle and axes show the possible polarization states after the polarization modulator. The dotted grand circle and axes show a realization of the polarization states at the sample arm fiber tip as a result of PMD. The angles between the Stokes vectors are maintained in the absence of polarization-dependent loss.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PS OCT images of in vivo human finger skin; 2 mm×2 mm, pixel size 5 µm×5 µm. Left to right, Stokes parameters I, Q, U, and V for a single input polarization state. The images are gray-scale coded over a 40-dB range for I and from 1 to -1 for Q, U, and V.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PS OCT images of in vivo human forearm skin, 2 mm×3.1 mm, pixel size 5 µm×5 µm for A, the intensity image and 10 µm×10 µm for B, the phase-retardation image. The images are gray-scale coded over 40 dB for intensity and from 0 (black) to π (white) for the phase retardation. For a description of the data processing, see the text.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=sinH2+cosH2+sinV2+cosV2,
Q=sinH2+cosH2-sinV2-cosV2,
U=2 sinH×sinV+2 cosH×cosV,
V=2 sinH× cosV-2cosH×sinV,

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